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15. Key Instruments for Practice of Kammatthana

At this level key instruments steering the practice of Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na along the path of tranquility comprise:

15.1 Sacca (Determination), Satimam.gif (839 bytes) (Mindfulness) aam.gif (860 bytes)tam.gif (839 bytes)pim.gif (834 bytes) (Intense Perseverance) and Sampajam.gif (839 bytes)no (Versatile Knowledge of a given stance).
15.2 An effort gingerly to maintain the consistency of the following 5 Functions (Bala or Forces), namely, Saddham.gif (839 bytes) (Faith), Pannnm.gif (847 bytes)nnnm.gif (847 bytes)am.gif (839 bytes), (Versatile Knowledge), Viriya (Perseverance) Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi (Concentration) and Sati (Mindfulness). The last function operates to evaluate itself so as to adjust the mind accordingly.
16. Points to note on Aditthana

There are 5 Mam.gif (839 bytes)ra which are destructive. As the Exalted One conquered them all, He has been known as Mam.gif (839 bytes)ravijjaya or the Victor of Mam.gif (839 bytes)ra. These are given below :

16.1 Khandha-mam.gif (839 bytes)ra, consists of Pannnm.gif (847 bytes)cakhandha which gets one into trouble and leads to tedium which could be the cause of suicide.
16.2 Kilesa-mam.gif (839 bytes)ra is made up of Kilesa under whose domination a person slaves and is compelled to commit a variety of sinful acts.
16.3 Abhisanm.gif (839 bytes)kham.gif (839 bytes)ta-mam.gif (839 bytes)ra, comprises abhisanm.gif (839 bytes)kham.gif (839 bytes)ra conducive to both meritorious and sinful acts. However in general for the man in the street, this has sinful connotations. It makes for lowly conception and birth and leads to difficulty in one's present life.
16.4 Maccu-mam.gif (839 bytes)ra, is formed from death. This applies particularly to people who have righteously performed useful acts but whose life is cut short by death. Death is thus Mam.gif (839 bytes)ra, since it destroys their potential to do good, as in the case of aam.gif (860 bytes)lam.gif (839 bytes)ra Kam.gif (839 bytes)lam.gif (839 bytes)ma and Uddaka Ram.gif (839 bytes)maputta (The Buddha's former teachers). Their death occurred at approximately the same time as the Buddha decided to go to bless them after His Enlightenment.
16.5 Devaputta-mam.gif (839 bytes)ra consisting of Deva and Devi who are malevolent and are on the look-out to destroy and place obstacles in the way of good deeds.

Thus Mam.gif (839 bytes)ra is a thing or a being which destroys good deeds and corrupts people.

17. Five Attributes of Pati
Pim.gif (834 bytes)ti is rapture, constituting one result of the practice of Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na. It is manifested in 5 ways.
17.1 Khuddakam.gif (839 bytes)-pim.gif (834 bytes)ti (Minimal Rapture). On its appearance, a person's hair stand on end and he or she is in tears.
17.2 Khanikam.gif (839 bytes)-pim.gif (834 bytes)ti (Momentary Rapture). On its appearance, one experiences a sharp pang as sudden as lightening.
17.3 Okkantikam.gif (839 bytes)-pim.gif (834 bytes)ti (Spasmodic Rapture). When it occurs, a person's hairs stand on end but in a stronger manner than in the case of the second kind. It can be likened to the action of waves hurling themselves against the shore.
17.4 Ubbegam.gif (839 bytes)-pim.gif (834 bytes)ti (Thrining Rapture). On its appearance, one is inflated and may do things unintentionally or absent-mindedly. For instance, one can utter an exclamation.
17.5 Pharanam.gif (839 bytes)-pim.gif (834 bytes)ti (Through-going Rapture). On its occurrence, according to the Buddha, one may leap into the air or levitate. Sometimes one feels one's hair standing on end and has a tingling sensation all over one's body.
18. Three Steps of Bhavana (Mental Development)
18.1 Parikamma-bham.gif (839 bytes)vanam.gif (839 bytes) (Preliminary Stage) This is to recite such words as Buddho, Buddho, during Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na.
18.2 Upacam.gif (839 bytes)ra-bham.gif (839 bytes)vanam.gif (839 bytes) (Access Stage). This is a by-product of contemplation of objects or, with suppression of Nivarana during Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na, results from mere thought being given to such things as the Buddha's benefaction. Visions will appear.
18.3 Appanam.gif (839 bytes)-bham.gif (839 bytes)vanam.gif (839 bytes) (Full Absorption Stage). This is contemplation while Patbham.gif (839 bytes)ganimitta appear. With mental concentration such vision can be generated at will. This is the outcome of unshakable contemplation of objects. On the other hand, the kind of Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na having mere thinking as its basis falls short of this.
19. Five Types of Vasi

Vasim.gif (834 bytes), there are 5 Types of Expertise related directly to Jham.gif (839 bytes)na and indirectly to Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi.

These are 5 successive steps of reflecting on, entry into establishing, rising from and reviewing the
Jham.gif (839 bytes)nic State in Vasim.gif (834 bytes), which is repeated practice to make the Jham.gif (839 bytes)nic State second nature to one.

19.1 aam.gif (860 bytes)vajjana-vasim.gif (834 bytes) : Expertise in entering Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhiJham.gif (839 bytes)na, through, at will.
19.2 Samam.gif (839 bytes)pajjana-vasim.gif (834 bytes) : Expertise in entering Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhiJham.gif (839 bytes)na.
19.3 Adhittham.gif (839 bytes)na-vasim.gif (834 bytes) : Expertise in being determined tranquilized in Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhiJham.gif (839 bytes)na.
19.4 Vuttham.gif (839 bytes)na-vasim.gif (834 bytes) : Expertise in making one's exit from Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhiJham.gif (839 bytes)na.
19.5 Paccavekkhana-vasim.gif (834 bytes) : Expertise in contemplating Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi and Jham.gif (839 bytes)na.
20. Five kinds of Vimutti

Vimutti : This is Mental Release, which is the ultimate aim of Buddhism. It can be either Lokiya or Lokutara

20.1 Tadanm.gif (839 bytes)ga-vimutti : Temporary Release from Kilesa, as for instance, temporary suppression of lust, resentment, infatuation and obsession with certain stances.
20.2 Vikkhambhana-vimutti : Mental Release from Kilesa by virtue of Jham.gif (839 bytes)na. This lasts as long as Jham.gif (839 bytes)na itself.
 20.3 Samuccheda-vimutti : Mental Release from Kilesa by virtue of Ariya-magga. Once relinquished, these Kilesa will not break out for good.
20.4 Patipassaddhi-vimutti : Mental Release from Kilesa by virtue of attainment of Ariya-phala through Ariya-magga. There is no feverish activity to relinquish these Kilesa, since they have been irrevocably eradicated.
20.5 Nissarana-vimutti : Absolute Release from Kilesa lasting up to Nibbam.gif (839 bytes)na.
21. Criteria for Judging Mental Samadhi by Its Nature

According to the Buddha, the nature of Sama.gif (845 bytes)dhi must be scrutinized as to :

21.1 Whether there is inherent absence of mental dissipation.
21.2 Whether mental fantasy has been eliminated.
21.3 Whether there exists evident mental resoluteness.
21.4 Whether there has arisen a feeling of corporal and mental comfort (conducive to Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi).
22. Benefit of the Practice of Anapanasati

Mental tranquillity, refinement and coolness (without being literally drenched), abiding happiness and capacity for instantaneous elimination of sinful hang-ups.

        "Behold, monks who can discern the perils of Vatta-samm.gif (851 bytes)sam.gif (839 bytes)ra. Do take up samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi, for those who have attained Mental Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi, have access to the Truth". These are the Buddha's Words.

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