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6. What are the guide-lines for this type of Kammatthana ?
      6.1 First, we have to find a spot which is relatively free from noise pollution. Some noise can be tolerated; but it should not be excessive. It could be the classroom, the bedroom or any other place which meets the said requirement.
      6.2 Secondly, we should be in a sitting posture, either on a chair, or on the floor (side-ways or cross-legged) with the body reasonably erect but not tense. We should concentrate our mind firmly on the spot to be used. In this connexion, it is understood from teachers of anatomy that "Sitting cross-legged is the best position to take". Of course, it al1 depends on convenience and appropriateness. Even if we sit on a chair, we can equally bring the legs together on one side, put our feet on the ground or cross our legs. Once one is properly seated, the right hand is to be placed over the left while keeping a distance of approximately two inches between the thumbs.
    6.3 Thirdly, we concentrate our mind on the disposition to be used. As our mind is accustomed to wandering from one disposition to another, at will, I should like to demonstrate, step by step, what this means :

        6.3.1 The mind is to be anchored to the moorings or points in the body in the following sequence; the tip of the nose, the top of the skull, the palate, the pharynx, the sternum and the navel. These bases were the considered by the Buddha to be resting-places for our breath.

        6.3.2 Once it has been ascertained that the mind does not run away from these six points, proceed to count as air is inhaled and exhaled. The Buddha demonstrated counting in pairs. For instance, count 1 on inhaling air and also 1 or? exhaling air. The Buddha gave the following sets for counting :

a) 1-1 , 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, 5-5
b) 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, 5-5, 6-6
c) 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, 5-5, 6-6, 7-7
d) 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, 5-5, 6-6, 7-7, 8-8
e) 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, 5-5, 6-6, 7-7, 8-8, 9-9
f) 1-1 , 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, 5-5, 6-6, 7-7, 8-8, 9-9, 10-10

        To avoid exhausting yourselves while counting, make an effort to control breathing in such a way as to make it neither too short nor too long. Breathe normally. At this stage the idea is not to commit errors in counting. Once we have reached the set ending with 10, resume the whole process with the set ending with 5. This is to be repeated until no more errors in counting are committed. Errors can arise in two following ways: Errors Committed within a given set which arise as, for instance, one counts 3 and, while while being off one's guard, proceeds to count 5. Errors committed as between sets which arise, for instance, when, instead of proceeding from 1 to 6, one stops at 5 or skips to 7 or is uncertain as to where one is exactly.

        6.4 Once counting has been straightened out, the mind is to be concentrated on three points:

        6.4.1 The tip of the nose or the upper lip either of which is a point of impact as air is inhaled and exhaled.

        6.4.2 The location of the heart to which the mind travels while inhaling and exhaling air.

        6.4.3 The final point is the navel considered by the Buddha to be the centre. As we inhale air, we feel breathed air being directed towards this point, which is also the point of departure for exhaled air. While our breathing system may not correspond exactly to this description, our feeling does.

         6.5 Once we have been secured against errors, a change is required. The mind is now to concentrate only on breathing so that one is fully conscious of the duration of air inhalation and exhalation. There is no need to control the tempo of breathing; for the crucial thing is only to know its duration.
         6.6 It can be seen that in step 5 above, we need to be fully mindful of breathing at two points. Once this has been achieved, one should concentrate only on air inhalation and exhalation. As we exhale air we contemplate "Bud" and, as we exhale air, "dho" In all, we contemplate ''Buddho''. Alternatively, "Buddho" can be contemplated all at once during air inhalation and exhalation. The first alternative may be better, as one syllable only is used each time. One can make a choice to suit oneself.
        6.7 At this stage we can still adhere to contemplation of "Buddho" or abandon it altogether. What is crucial is to be fully mindful of the impact air makes on the tip of the nose or the upper lip during air inhalation and exhalation. There is no further need to pay attention to the points towards which inhaled and exhaled air is directed.

        The type of Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na termed aam.gif (860 bytes)nam.gif (839 bytes)pam.gif (839 bytes)nasati as has been outline, is in keeping with practitioner's given stances or dispositions as have been described. In actual practice, a choice of the steps is permissible. On the basis of the dispositions already described, the followings will be found:

        6.7.1 Those with worrisome, delusive and irritable dispositions should proceed step by step. In particular, those with a worrisome disposition are unusually emotional and find it difficult to accelerate mental tranquilization. They should proceed by degrees in de-escalating the emotional level.

        6.7.2 Those with sensual, awakened and faithful dispositions could very well begin with step 4, their emotional texture being more refined than that of the three types already mentioned.

       6.8 The Needed Points to be Emphasized. One more point needs to be emphasized. aam.gif (860 bytes)nam.gif (839 bytes)pam.gif (839 bytes)nasati Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na is inextricably intertwined with counting and mindfulness of breathing. The following props need to lend a helping hand:

        6.8.1 Sati : Which is full awareness of what one is doing without ever being off one's guard.

        6.8.2. Pannnm.gif (847 bytes)nnnm.gif (847 bytes)am.gif (839 bytes) (Self-knowledge) : Which implies knowledge at all times of what one is doing and whether tine is committing any errors.

        6.8.3 Viriya (Perseverance) : lt should be understood that as the mind has been left in the wilderness for some time, it would be difficult to achieve mental tranquility at a moment's notice. Perseverance without fail, is imperative. If one gives up only after a few trials, the expected results can hardly come by.

These three pillars of Dhamma constitute in a sense, our teachers who relentlessly advise, admonish and stimulate students so that their awareness may proceed along the right path.

       6.9 Various Sensations While practising Kammatthana some may be beset, for instance, with various sensations :

        6.9.1 Dizziness: lf this should occur, it should be known that it originates from undue self-hypnotism. This should now be relaxed so that nature may take its course. Our task is simply to know Our prevailing disposition,

        6.9.2 Tension : This arises from a desire to achieve unduly accelerated tranquility. Once the desire has been thwarted, tension ensues. It should be understood that, as long as there is a craving for mental tranquility, no such state of mind can ever be achieved.

        6.9.3 Unusual Palpitation: This arises because of unduly violent detachment of the mind from extraneous stances. It should be noted that, sometimes when we sit with our mind wandering elsewhere or, if asleep and dreaming, we are suddenly startled or woken up, there is unusual palpitation. As a result, some may feel tired and pant. If this should happen, Kammatthana should proceed according to the steps already explained,

        6.9.4 A Feeling of Mental Drift: This is because we are still footloose and unsettled while shuttling back and forth.

        The way out of all those is to refrain from taking an interest in what has been or not been mentioned, while concentrating ourselves on the mental pursuit of our breath until those symptoms disappear of their own accord.

       6.10 The Feelings after the Dispositional and Mental Changes

        After a fairly long period of practice of such mental tranquilization, the following corporal, dispositional and mental changes will make themselves felt:

        6.10.1 Corporal and mental restlessness subsides, while there arise corporal and mental relief mental lucidity and an occasional experience of being airborne.

        6.10.2 With trimming of the rough edges of breathing, normal breathing becomes more refined and the mind sees visions. This is the typical behaviour of a mind tranquilized as a result of more refined and profound breathing.

        6.10.3 More perseverance is still needed until ultimately, such more refined and profound breathing itself settles down. Further refinement of breathing will bring us to a point where we seem to have done away with breathing altogether or where there is no longer any breathing.

        6.10.4 Once this point has been reached, do not panic and cease meditating, since this is the outcome of our practice of Kammatthana. If we stand up or cease meditating, all the outcome of our persevering practice will have been lost for good.Maintain the original sitting posture and continue to concentrate on the points of origination of our breath or its points of impact.

       6.11 The Visions as an Indication of Mental Tranquility

        Once this stage has been reached, we feel that, as we are not dead and buried, we are bound to breathe. Breathing will be back to nomal. Our moorings being the three pillars of Full awareness, Intelligence and Perseverance, as has been said. Visions will follow as an indication of mental tranquility. These vary according to individual dispositions, for instance:

        6.11.1 Certain images may put in an appearance, while the eyes of meditators are closed. Their dimensions can be magnified or reduced, at will.

        6.11.2 Some may experience delicate tactile sensations of kapok or cotton wool, Others may see. In the mind's eyes, crystal balls and light beams or feel soft breezes blowing. Whatever comes about, remember that this is the upshot of our mental perseverance. Our task is to forge inexorably ahead.

        We need to be definitely mindful of air inhalation and exhalation and visions. These three things represent mental stances and we need to distinguish one from another.

       6.12 The Levels of The Tranquility The tranquility secured from the said Kamma-tthana can be at three levels:

        6.12.1 Momentary Tranquility is known as Khanikam.gif (839 bytes)-samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi.

        6.12.2 Intermediate Tranquility, lasting longer than that under 6.12.1 but not very long, is known as Upacam.gif (839 bytes)ra-samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi and comes within a hair's breadth of ultimate tranquility.

        6.12.3 Ultimate Tranquility is known as Appanam.gif (839 bytes)-samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi. This mental level has a self-regulating mechanism which further refines and canalizes mental dispositions according to several stages of intensification of mental tranquility, each of which was called by the Buddha ''Jham.gif (839 bytes)na'' or Absorption.

     6.13 Different Stages of Absorption (Jham.gif (839 bytes)na)

        6.13.1 The first Jham.gif (839 bytes)na, may co-exist with Vitakka or cursory thinking, Vicam.gif (839 bytes)ra or sustained thinking, Pim.gif (834 bytes)ti or euphoria, Sukhamm.gif (851 bytes) or bodily and mental comfort and Ekaggatam.gif (839 bytes) or unitary mental disposition.

        6.13.2 The second Jham.gif (839 bytes)na, whithnesses the elimination of Vitakka and Vicam.gif (839 bytes)ra but the retention of Pim.gif (834 bytes)ti Sukhamm.gif (851 bytes) and Ekaggatam.gif (839 bytes) which are More refined than in the first Jham.gif (839 bytes)na.

        6.13.3 The third Jhana, discerns the removal of Pim.gif (834 bytes)ti but the continuation of Sukhamm.gif (851 bytes) and Ekaggatam.gif (839 bytes) which are more refined than in the second Jham.gif (839 bytes)na.

        6.13.4 The fourth Jham.gif (839 bytes)na, perceives the disappearance of more refined Sukhamm.gif (851 bytes) but the endurance of Upekkham.gif (839 bytes) (mental detachment) and Ekaggatam.gif (839 bytes) which together represent the culmination of distinctive Samam.gif (839 bytes)dhi.

        Schoolchildren will find that in such theistic types of religion as Brahmanism there is a theistic division of labour according to which Brahma is the Creator, Siva the Destroyer and Vishnu the Protector of the earth.

        In Buddhism no theism is present. There is only the Triple Gem. We do not refer to the world which is our abode but are solely interested in our lives and those of others.

        Human beings are created by Kilesa and Tanham.gif (839 bytes) which represent melancholy and mental craving for a variety of things and altogether make up human life.

        Even after their birth Kilesa and Tanham.gif (839 bytes) have a hold on human beings. Kilesa may thus be said to be the Protector or Preserver.

        At the same time, those dominated by Kilesa and Tanham.gif (839 bytes) tend to behave under their influence and find themselves in no end of troble. Kilesa and Tanham.gif (839 bytes) thus function also as the Destroyer.

7. The Benefit of Dhamma
    With a view to creating a life which is better and more noble, more refined and more tranquil. Buddhism puts forward Dhamma as its Noble Truth. If Dhamma can be likened to the Gods already mentioned, it can be said to constitute all of the three Gods in accordance with the benefit it can bestow on human beings.
       7.1 The Buddha attained Enlightenment on Dhamma. He used His Dhamma as His teachings to bring benefit, sustenance and happiness to human beings and the world. Dhamma thus serves as the Creator.
        7.2 Such Dhamma, as preserved and practised by human beings, tends to protect its practitioners. For instances, as was stated by the Buddha, "Dhamma tends to preclude its probationers from plunging into vices. Dhamma tends to protect its practitioners. Well-observed Dhamma tends to bring with it happiness'' In this respect Dhamma serves as the Protector and Preserver of mankind and the world in a state of happiness and tranquility until attainment of perennial bliss.
        7.3 The Buddha laid down Sim.gif (834 bytes)la in order to rid us of exuding Kilesa manifesting themselves in deeds and words. Sim.gif (834 bytes)la can be achieved only with Cetanam.gif (839 bytes) or Determination. At the same time, the Buddha set forth numerous Dhamma destined for annihilation of Kilesa and Tanham.gif (839 bytes). In this respect Dhamma may be said to be the Destroyer of vices or Kilesa subsisting in the individual's mind in particular and in society in general.

   In order to delimit the scope of Dhamma's creative, preservative and destructive activities we shall focus our attention on Kammattham.gif (839 bytes)na only.

8. What should be destroyed by Dhamma?
        In one's daily life, one tends to be subject to the domination of Kilesa and behave under its dictates. Only five of these will be referred to in this context. The Buddha styled these hindrances Nivarna, which prevent the mind from attaining virtue.
        8.1 The Mind's Gratification, under the influence of love, satisfaction and cravings, With pleasantness of forms, sounds smells, tastes and tactile sensations; this is Kam.gif (839 bytes)machanda.
        8.2 Agitation, irritability and dissatisfaction giving rise to lll Will. This stems from the influence of displeasure, discontent hatred, anger and irritation; and is known as Byam.gif (839 bytes)pam.gif (839 bytes)da (III Will).
        8.3 Despondency, fatigue, corporal and mental lethargy or drowsiness; this is Thim.gif (834 bytes)na-middha.
        8.4 Fancifulness, boredom and capriciousnesses together with mental fading; this is Uddhaccakukkucca.
        8.5 Hesitancy, scepticism, uncertainty, indecisiveness and lack of self-confidence; this is Vicikiccham.gif (839 bytes).

         If these five Nivarana should affect anybody's mind, they will be impediments to his or her righteousness in a twofold manner.

        They are entry impediments denying righteousness access to the mind. For instance, schoolchildren may be listening to a lecture or the faithful to a sermon. The lecture or the sermon cannot sink in, if the mind is blocked with a given Nivarana, which is an obstacle to the listeners' gaining new knowledge.

        They are impediments to exit in the sense that, while competent people can exhibit their professional expertise, they are prevented, due to the presence of Nivarana in the mind, from exploiting their potential to the full. For instance, a well-qualified teacher or preacher under the influence of Nivarana is constrained from a full demonstration of his ability. Again, a seasoned reader, reading under the influence of Nivarana, are incapable of taking in everything. Likewise, orators, performers, singers, boxers and students afflicted with Nivarana can not hope to attain a high standard of performance.

9. How have the 5 Nivarana arisen ?
        9.1 Kam.gif (839 bytes)machanda, arises because the mind clings to things regarded as being beautiful, lovely and pleasurable. The mind is constantly on the run in quest of what it hankers after. Its quarry is Subhanimitta.
        9.2 Byam.gif (839 bytes)pam.gif (839 bytes)da, occurs because things are perceived to be unsightly, unpleasant and mentally oppressive. What the mind sees is Patighanimitta.
       9.3 Thim.gif (834 bytes)na-middha, originates from dissatisfaction, indolence, distortion, infatuation with food and dejection. The mind is, instance, under the influence of Arati (Discontent).
       9.4 Uddhacca-kukkucca, stems from a non-tranquilizable mind which is constantly fleeting from one point to another. This condition is known as "cetaso-avum.gif (842 bytes)pasama".
       9.5 Vicikiccham.gif (839 bytes), results from failure to use the intellect in deliberations. The mind does not adhere to a sufficiently sagacious stratagem. This condition is Ayoniso-manasikam.gif (839 bytes)ra.

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