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During one hundred years before the Buddhist Era the region called Jambu.gif (65 bytes)di.gif (57 bytes)pa in ancient times which is presently the locations of Nepal, India and some parts of Pakistan used to be inhabited by a people by the name of Ariyaka or Aryan for thousands of years. The Jambu.gif (65 bytes)di.gif (57 bytes)pa was bordered in the North by the Himalayan range, in the South by the Indian Ocean. Its borders extended in the East to the forest of Mahavan in the state of Assam, whereas in the West to the basin of Indus River. However, the parts on the Ganges basin and of other rivers emptying its water at the Ganges estuary called Maddhayamapadesa, literally the 'Middle or Central Country', were far more prosperous than the rest, which were called Paccanta Janapada, the external country. Most of the people at the times professed Brahmanism, with the Yoga discipline winning contemporary popularity to a certain, although lesser, extent. All in all, the public temperament being then focussed on spiritual knowledge and psychical feats.

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North of the Jambu.gif (65 bytes)di.gif (57 bytes)pa there was a small state by the name of Sakka, generally called Sakka Janapada, situated in the basin of Rohini.gif (57 bytes) River. At present it is in the country of Nepal. It was a prosperous state which abounded with teak and was also rich in vegetation. Located on the foothills of the Himalayan, it was governed by a form of administration based on unity and harmony, with its chieftains by the name of Sakya lineage. This ruler, or we may call him king, of this clan or state was called Suddhodana, with the capital city called Kapilavatlhu. As such, he was chief of all the Sakyan nobles. His state, including his capital city, was noted for its progress and prosperity in a variety of arts and knowledge, of that time. All the Sakyan leaders made it a rule to give priority to agriculture, with a large portion of their time devoted to its improvement and development, and with all the Sakyan leaders directly overseeing the farming activities. The people were then blessed with happiness and peace.

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