International Publications of Mahidol University - Year 2010
Indexed in ISI Web of Science Database (726 Articles)

Record 1 of 726
Author(s): Hahnvajanawong, C (Hahnvajanawong, Chariya); Boonyanugomol, W (Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut); Nasomyon, T (Nasomyon, Tapanawan); Loilome, W (Loilome, Watcharin); Namwat, N (Namwat, Nisana); Anantachoke, N (Anantachoke, Natthinee); Tassaneeyakul, W (Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra); Sripa, B (Sripa, Banchob); Namwat, W (Namwat, Wises); Reutrakul, V (Reutrakul, Vichai)
Title: Apoptotic activity of caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines
Source: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 16 (18): 2235-2243 MAY 14 2010
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of four caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) KKU-100 and KKU-M156 cells.
METHODS: Four caged xanthones, selected on the basis of their anticancer potency and chemical structure diversities (i.e. isomorellin, isomorellinol, forbesione and gambogic acid) were used in this study. Growth inhibition of these caged xanthones was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by observing cell morphology, ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Levels of apoptotic-related gene and protein expressions were determined by a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively.
RESULTS: The compounds were found to inhibit growth of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and also showed selective cytotoxicity against the cancer cells when compared with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Growth suppression by these compounds was due to apoptosis, as evidenced by the cell morphological changes, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA ladder formation. At the molecular level, these compounds induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin proteins with up-regulation of Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor proteins, leading to the activation of caspase-9 and -3 and DNA fragmentation. The functional group variations did not appear to affect the anticancer activity with regard to the two CCA cell lines; however, at a mechanistic level, isomorellinol exhibited the highest potency in increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio (120 and 41.4 for KKU-100 and KKU-M156, respectively) and in decreasing survivin protein expression (0.01 fold as compared to control cells in both cell lines). Other activities at the molecular level indicate that functional groups on the prenyl side chain may be important.
CONCLUSION: Our findings for the first time demonstrate that four caged xanthones induce apoptosis in CCA cells which is mediated through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1007-9327
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i18.2235

Record 2 of 726
Author(s): Srifeungfung, S (Srifeungfung, Somporn); Tribuddharat, C (Tribuddharat, Chanwit); Comerungsee, S (Comerungsee, Sopita); Chatsuwan, T (Chatsuwan, Tanittha); Treerauthanaweeraphong, V (Treerauthanaweeraphong, Vipa); Rungnobhakhun, P (Rungnobhakhun, Pimpha); Nunthapisud, P (Nunthapisud, Pongpun); Chokephaibulkit, K (Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya)
Title: Serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and drug susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive or non-invasive diseases in central Thailand, 2006-2009
Source: VACCINE, 28 (19): 3440-3444 APR 26 2010
Abstract: The serotype of 172 S pneumoniae isolates obtained from normally sterile sites from January 2006 to February 2009 in Thai patients was evaluated The most common serotypes were 6B, 23F, 14, 19F. and 19A in patients <5 year-old, and 6B, 19A, 23F, 4, 9V in patients >65-year old Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV-7) covered 70 3%, 43.6%. and 43 5% of patients <5. 5-64 and >= 65 years of age, respectively, while PCV-13 covered 81.2%, 59.7%, and 60.9%, respectively PCV-9, PCV-10, PCV-11 had very similar coverage as PCV-7. The antibiotic susceptibility rates of the isolates from sterile sites were 88 7-95 7% for penicillin, 90.6-984% for cefotaxime, 92 2-100% for ofloxacin and 100% for ciprofloxacin PCV-7 covered 83% and 100%, respectively, of penicillin and cefotaxime non-susceptible Isolates in patients <5-year old. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0264-410X
DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.071

Record 3 of 726
Author(s): Romphruk, AV (Romphruk, A. V.); Romphruk, A (Romphruk, A.); Kongmaroeng, C (Kongmaroeng, C.); Klumkrathok, K (Klumkrathok, K.); Paupairoj, C (Paupairoj, C.); Leelayuwat, C (Leelayuwat, C.)
Title: HLA class I and II alleles and haplotypes in ethnic Northeast Thais
Source: TISSUE ANTIGENS, 75 (6): 701-711 JUN 2010
Abstract: Allele frequencies (AFs) and haplotypic associations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II were investigated in 400 unrelated, healthy, ethnic Northeast Thais. HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1 and -DQB1 were typed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer, -sequence specific oligonucleotide probe and -single-strand conformation polymorphism methods. In this population, 17 HLA-A, 26 HLA-B, 15 HLA-Cw, 26 HLA-DRB1 and 13 HLA-DQB1 alleles (or groups of alleles) were found. AFs > 10% included A*11 (23.3%), 24 (18.8%), 0207 (14.4%), 33 (11.5%), 0203 (10.6%); B*4601 (13.9%); Cw*07(01-03) (18.5%), 01 (15.9%), 04 (12.0%), 0304 (10.6%); DRB1*1502 (18.5%), 1202 (13.4%); DQB1*0502 (20.3%), 0501 (16.3%), 0301 (14.1%) and 02 (10.9%). The most common of 2-locus haplotypes included A*0207-B*4601 (9.3%), B*4601-Cw*01 (13.5%), B*5801-DRB1*0301 (5.8%) and DRB1*1502-DQB1*0501 (14.1%). Of the 49 five-locus HLA haplotypes identified, 24 were confirmed in 31 family studies: the most common being; A*33-Cw*0302-B*5801-DRB1*0301-DQB1*02 (4.6%), A*0207-Cw*01-B*4601-DRB1*09-DQB1*0303 (3.4%) and A*33-Cw*07(01-03)-B*44-DRB1*07-DQB1*02 (2.6%). Apparently, the HLA-B*46-carrying haplotype is fragmented in ethnic Northeast Thais, including seven haplotypes with different HLA-A and HLA-DR/DQ combinations. One of these haplotypes (A*11-Cw*01-B*4601-DRB1*1202-DQB1*0502) has not been reported in other Asians. The results indicated that there were marked differences in the distribution of HLA alleles and haplotypes between ethnic Northeast Thais and other ethnic groups in Southeast and East Asia. These results also dictate that future studies of HLA alleles and diseases need precise identification of ethnically and geographically matched controls. The HLA allele and haplotype analyses in this large sample provide baseline information on ethnic Northeast Thais for anthropological studies and for determining HLA allele/haplotype frequencies when searching for HLA-compatible donors for unrelated bone marrow transplantation.
ISSN: 0001-2815
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01448.x

Record 4 of 726
Author(s): Sitthinamsuwan, B (Sitthinamsuwan, Bunpot); Chanvanitkulchai, K (Chanvanitkulchai, Kannachod); Nunta-Aree, S (Nunta-Aree, Sarun); Kumthornthip, W (Kumthornthip, Witsanu); Pisarnpong, A (Pisarnpong, Apichart); Ploypetch, T (Ploypetch, Teerada)
Title: Combined Ablative Neurosurgical Procedures in a Patient with Mixed Spastic and Dystonic Cerebral Palsy
Abstract: Background: Harmful generalized spasticity is an obstacle in rehabilitation and caregiving. Neurosurgical intervention is a therapeutic option for patients with severe spasticity who do not respond to nonoperative management. Currently, intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) is a good alternative treatment for such patients. However, the ITB device is costly and the intrathecal drug is not available in Thailand. Case Description: We report a combined use of ablative neurosurgical procedures in a patient with severe generalized spasticity and disabling cervical dystonia (CD). The assembled operations including selective peripheral denervation for CD, microsurgical dorsal root entry zone lesion for upper limb spasticity, and selective dorsal rhizotomy for lower limb spasticity were conducted in a single session. Furthermore, recurrent spasticity of the upper extremities was subsequently treated by selective peripheral neurotomy. Results: The spasticity and CD totally disappeared after all operations. The patient became able to sit and perform head turning. Additionally, we also found an improvement in swallowing and the voluntary movement of the lower limbs. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
ISSN: 1011-6125
DOI: 10.1159/000313872

Record 5 of 726
Author(s): Suksiriworapong, J (Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong); Sripha, K (Sripha, Kittisak); Junyaprasert, VB (Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep)
Title: Synthesis and characterization of bioactive molecules grafted on poly(epsilon-caprolactone) by "click" chemistry
Source: POLYMER, 51 (11): 2286-2295 MAY 14 2010
Abstract: A facile and efficient strategy to graft bioactive molecules (nicotinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and phthaloyltryptophan) onto poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (P(epsilon CL)) was achieved by copper-catalyzed Huisgen's 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition known as click reaction. P(alpha Cl epsilon CL), with 10, 20, and 30% of alpha-chloro-epsilon-caprolactone (alpha Cl epsilon CL) units were copolymerized by ring opening polymerization using epsilon CL and alpha Cl epsilon CL as starting materials in the presence of 1,4-butanediol and Sn(Oct)(2). Subsequently, the chloride pendent was converted to azide followed by cycloaddition with terminal alkyne derivatives of the aforementioned bioactive molecules. The complete addition was accomplished at all ratios. The characteristic molecular features of these copolymers were evaluated by FTIR, NMR, and GPC. Thermal analysis data indicated that the grafted compounds led to polymorphic alteration and different pattern of thermal degradation depending on the molecular structure and the size of the grafted compounds. They are the basis for further development of grafted copolymer as drug delivery carriers. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0032-3861
DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2010.03.034

Record 6 of 726
Author(s): Saepou, S (Saepou, Siriporn); Pohmakotr, M (Pohmakotr, Manat); Reutrakul, V (Reutrakul, Vichai); Yoosook, C (Yoosook, Chalobon); Kasisit, J (Kasisit, Jitra); Napaswad, C (Napaswad, Chanita); Tuchinda, P (Tuchinda, Patoomratana)
Title: Anti-HIV-1 Diterpenoids from Leaves and Twigs of Polyalthia sclerophylla
Source: PLANTA MEDICA, 76 (7): 721-725 MAY 2010
Abstract: Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the anti-HIV-1-active MeOH extract from the leaves and twigs of Polyalthia sclerophylla led to the isolation of two new compounds, ent-kaursclerodimer (1) and cyclotucanol 3-palmitate (2), along with the known ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3), 15 beta-hydroxy-ent-kaur16- en-19-oic acid (4), 15 beta-acetoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (5), 15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (6), 16 alpha, 17-dihydroxyent- kauran-19-oic acid (7), 16 alpha-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (xylopic acid) (8), a pseudodimer (15 alpha-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en19- oic acid/ 17-hydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid) (9), ermanin, nicotiflorin, and allantoin. Among these isolates, compound 3 was the most active in both anti-syncytium (EC50 13.7 mu g/mL and selectivity index 3.1) and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50 34.1 mu g/mL) assays.
ISSN: 0032-0943
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1240683

Record 7 of 726
Author(s): Munkongdee, T (Munkongdee, Thongperm); Vattanaviboon, P (Vattanaviboon, Phantip); Thummarati, P (Thummarati, Parichut); Sewamart, P (Sewamart, Paijit); Winichagoon, P (Winichagoon, Pranee); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat); Svasti, S (Svasti, Saovaros)
Title: Rapid Diagnosis of alpha-Thalassemia by Melting Curve Analysis
Source: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS, 12 (3): 354-358 MAY 2010
Abstract: alpha-Thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder that results from defective synthesis of alpha-globin protein. Couples who both carry the alpha-thalassemia-1 gene are at risk of having a fetus with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Rapid and accurate screening for individuals carrying the alpha-thalassemia-1 gene is the most effective strategy to prevent and control this severe form of thalassemia. In this study, a new and accurate method for alpha-thalassemia diagnosis was developed by genotyping alpha-thalassemia-1, the Southeast Asian type (--(SEA)) and Thai type (--(THAI)) deletions, using multiplex PCR followed by a melting curve analysis. Primers were designed to specifically amplify two deletion fragments, the --(SEA) and --(THAI) deletions and two normal fragments, psi xi- and alpha 2-globin gene. The primers were capable of distinguishing a-thalassemia 1 heterozygotes from alpha-thalassemia 2 homozygotes, which are unable to be diagnosed by standard hematological data and hemoglobin typing. The melting temperatures of the --(THAI), --(SEA), psi xi-globin, and alpha 2-globin gene fragments were 79.9 +/- 0.2, 89.4 +/- 0.5, 92.8 +/- 0.2, and 85.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Melting curve analysis was performed in 130 subjects in parallel with conventional gap-PCR analysis, and results showed 100% concordance. This method eliminates the post-PCR electrophoresis process, which is laborious, and allows high throughput screening suitable for large population screening for prevention and control of thalassemia. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:354-358. DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090136)
ISSN: 1525-1578
DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090136

Record 8 of 726
Author(s): Rotkittikhun, P (Rotkittikhun, P.); Kruatrachue, M (Kruatrachue, M.); Pokethitiyook, P (Pokethitiyook, P.); Baker, AJM (Baker, A. J. M.)
Title: Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effect on oil production
Source: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY, 31 (3): 329-334 MAY 2010
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to evaluate lead tolerance and accumulation in vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides (L.), grown in hydroponics and a pot study and to examine the effect of lead on vetiver oil production. Elevated concentrations of lead decreased the length of shoots and roots of plants. However, vetiver grown in highly contaminated soils showed no apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. Lead concentrations in the shoots and roots of vetiver plants grown in hydroponics were up to 144 and 19530 mg kg(-1) and those grown in soil were 38 and 629 mg kg(-1), respectively Lead had an effect on vetiver oil production and composition by stimulating oil yield and the number of its constituents. Oil yield ranged from 0.4-1.3%; the highest yields were found in plants grown in nutrient solution with 100100 Pb l(-1) for 5 weeks (1.29%) and 7 weeks (1.22%). The number of total constituents of vetiver oil also varied between 47-143 compounds when lead was present in the growth medium, The highest number (143) was found in plants grown in soil spiked with 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). The predominant compound was khusimol (10.7-18.1%) followed by (E)-isovalencenol (10.3-15.6%). Our results indicated that lead could increase the oil production of vetiver.
ISSN: 0254-8704

Record 9 of 726
Author(s): Putaporntip, C (Putaporntip, Chaturong); Udomsangpetch, R (Udomsangpetch, Rachanee); Pattanawong, U (Pattanawong, Urassaya); Cui, LW (Cui, Liwang); Jongwutiwes, S (Jongwutiwes, Somchai)
Title: Genetic diversity of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-5 locus from diverse geographic origins
Source: GENE, 456 (1-2): 24-35 MAY 15 2010
Abstract: Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-5 (PvMsp-5), a potential vaccine candidate, is encoded by a two-exon single copy gene. We have conducted a comprehensive analysis of PvMsp-5 by sequencing the entire gene of four parasite populations from northwestern Thailand (n = 73), southern Thailand (n = 53), Indonesia (n = 25) and Brazil (n = 24), and five isolates from other endemic areas. Results reveal that exon I exhibits a significantly higher level of nucleotide diversity at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites than exon II (p<0.01). Neutrality tests based on both intraspecific and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism have detected a signature of positive selection in exon I of all populations while substitutions in exon II mainly followed neutral expectation except that three residues in exon II of northwestern Thailand population appear to be positively selected using the Bayes Empirical Bayes method. Short imperfect repeats were identified in exon I at an equivalent region to its orthologue in P. knowlesi, supporting their close genetic relatedness. Significant levels of population subdivision were detected among most populations including those between northwestern and southern Thailand (p<10(-5)), implying absent or minimal gene flow between these populations. Importantly, evidences for intragenic recombination in PvMsp-5 were found in most populations except that from southern Thailand in which haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were exceptionally low. Results from Fu and Li's D*, F* and D and F tests suggested that PvMsp-5 of most P. vivax populations have been maintained by balancing selection whereas southern Thailand population could have gone through recent bottleneck events. These findings are concordant with a substantial reduction in the number of P. vivax cases in southern Thailand during the past decade, followed by a very recent population expansion. Therefore, spatio-temporal monitoring of parasite population genetics provides important implications for disease control. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0378-1119
DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2010.02.007

Record 10 of 726
Author(s): Grace, SR (Grace, Said R.); Agarwal, RP (Agarwal, Ravi P.); Sae-Jie, W (Sae-Jie, Wichuta)
Abstract: Monotone and oscillatory behavior of solutions of the fourth order dynamic equation
(a(x(Delta Delta))(alpha))(t) + q(t)(x(sigma))(beta)(t) = 0
with the property that x(t)/integral(t)(t0) integral(a)(t0) a(-1/alpha)(tau)Delta tau Delta s -> 0 as t -> infinity are established.
ISSN: 1056-2176

Record 11 of 726
Author(s): Janvilisri, T (Janvilisri, Tavan); Scaria, J (Scaria, Joy); Gleed, R (Gleed, Robin); Fubini, S (Fubini, Susan); Bonkosky, MM (Bonkosky, Michelle M.); Grohn, YT (Groehn, Yrjoe T.); Chang, YF (Chang, Yung-Fu)
Title: Development of a microarray for identification of pathogenic Clostridium spp.
Abstract: In recent years, Clostridium spp. have rapidly reemerged as human and animal pathogens. The detection and identification of pathogenic Clostridium spp. is therefore critical for clinical diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy. Traditional diagnostic techniques for clostridia are laborious, are time consuming, and may adversely affect the therapeutic outcome. In this study, we developed an oligonucleotide diagnostic microarray for pathogenic Clostridium spp. The microarray specificity was tested against 65 Clostridium isolates. The applicability of this microarray in a clinical setting was assessed with the use of mock stool samples. The microarray was successful in discriminating at least 4 species with the limit of detection as low as 10(4) CFU/mL. In addition, the pattern of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of tested strains were determined through the microarrays. This approach demonstrates the high-throughput detection and identification of Clostridium spp. and provides advantages over traditional methods. Microarray-based techniques are promising applications for clinical diagnosis and epidemiologic investigations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0732-8893
DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2009.09.014

Record 12 of 726
Author(s): Teerasong, S (Teerasong, Saowapak); Amornthammarong, N (Amornthammarong, Natchanon); Grudpan, K (Grudpan, Kate); Teshima, N (Teshima, Norio); Sakai, T (Sakai, Tadao); Nacapricha, D (Nacapricha, Duangjai); Ratanawimarnwong, N (Ratanawimarnwong, Nuanlaor)
Title: A Multiple Processing Hybrid Flow System for Analysis of Formaldehyde Contamination in Food
Source: ANALYTICAL SCIENCES, 26 (5): 629-633 MAY 2010
Abstract: This work proposes a flow system suitable for the rapid screening of formaldehyde contaminated in food. The system is based on the concept of a flow analyzer with a Hantzsch reaction. An operating procedure was developed for multiple tasking and high sample throughput. This resulted in a significant sample throughput of 51 samples h(-1). Under the optimized conditions, linear calibration from 10 to 100 mu M was obtained. The system gave a limit of detection and a limit of quantitation of 0.06 and 0.10 mg kg(-1), respectively. The system was successfully applied to re-hydrated dry squids, vegetables and mushrooms.
ISSN: 0910-6340

Record 13 of 726
Author(s): Teamsuwan, Y (Teamsuwan, Yuttapol); Kaeoket, K (Kaeoket, Kampon); Tienthai, P (Tienthai, Paisan); Tummaruk, P (Tummaruk, Padet)
Title: Morphological Changes and Infiltration of Immune Cells in the Endometrium of Anoestrus Gilt in Relation to the Ovarian Appearance and Serum Progesterone
Abstract: The present study investigates morphological changes and distribution of the leukocyte subpopulation in the endometrium of anoestrus gilts in relation to reproductive cycles and serum progesterone (P-4). Selected genital organs from 30 gilts culled due to anoestrus were examined. The genital organs were classified according to the ovarian appearance into 3 groups, i.e. inactive (n = 10); follicular (n = 10); and luteal phase (n = 10). Blood samples were collected prior to slaughter to determine serum P-4. Seven tissue samples were randomly collected from the uteri of the gilts and were examined for histological structures, i.e. epithelial types and height, number of blood vessel, secretory vesicle and endometrial glands. Number of leukocyte subsets, i.e. lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and plasma cells were counted. On average, age and body weight at culling of the gilts were 306.4 +/- 39.9 d (range 233-407 d) and 150.4 +/- 24.8 kg (range 104.0-205.5 kg). Lymphocyte was the most common immune cell in all tissue layers and in all stages of the reproductive cycle. Lymphocytes in glandular layer in the inactive phase was higher than in the follicular (p=0.02) and luteal phases (p=0.05). Neutrophils in both epithelial and subepithelial layers in follicular phases was higher than luteal and inactive phases (p<0.001). Eosinophil in subepithelium in the luteal phase was higher than inactive (p=0.004) and follicular phases (p<0.001). An increase in the serum P-4 resulted in an increase number of uterine glands (p<0.001), a decrease number of lymphocytes in all tissue layers (p<0.05), a decrease number of neutrophils in subepithelial layers (p=0.03) and an increase in the number of eosinophils in subepithelial layers (p<0.001). In conclusion, the infiltration of the leukocyte subpopulation in the endometrium of anoestrus gilts is largely dependent on the ovarian function. Neutrophils and eosinophils were common immune cells in follicular and luteal phases, respectively.
ISSN: 0125-6491

Record 14 of 726
Author(s): Kanlaya, R (Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn); Pattanakitsakul, SN (Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga); Sinchaikul, S (Sinchaikul, Supachok); Chen, ST (Chen, Shui-Tein); Thongboonkerd, V (Thongboonkerd, Visith)
Title: Vimentin interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and dengue nonstructural protein 1 and is important for viral replication and release
Source: MOLECULAR BIOSYSTEMS, 6 (5): 795-806 MAY 2010
Abstract: Our previous study using expression proteomics demonstrated that many proteins, particularly five forms of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), were up-regulated in human endothelial cells upon dengue virus infection. To address functional significance of these proteins in response to dengue virus infection, we performed a functional proteomics study to identify hnRNPs-interacting proteins in the infected EA.hy926 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by 2-D PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses revealed 18 and 13 interacting partners of hnRNP C1/C2 and hnRNP K, respectively. Interestingly, vimentin was a common partner for both hnRNP C1/C2 and K. The interaction between vimentin and these hnRNPs was confirmed by reciprocal immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and also by double immunofluorescence staining. Disruption of vimentin intermediate filament by acrylamide not only dissociated these complexes but also reduced nuclear hnRNPs expression, whereas cytosolic hnRNPs expression was unchanged. We also demonstrated that vimentin was strongly associated with dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1). Disruption of vimentin intermediate filament not only dissociated this complex but also reduced dengue NS1 expression, as well as viral replication and release. Our data report for the first time that vimentin interacts with hnRNPs and dengue NS1, and plays a crucial role in replication and release of dengue virus.
ISSN: 1742-206X
DOI: 10.1039/b923864f

Record 15 of 726
Author(s): Awab, GR (Awab, Ghulam Rahim); Pukrittayakamee, S (Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon); Imwong, M (Imwong, Mallika); Dondorp, AM (Dondorp, Arjen M.); Woodrow, CJ (Woodrow, Charles J.); Lee, SJ (Lee, Sue Jean); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); Singhasivanon, P (Singhasivanon, Pratap); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.); Kaker, F (Kaker, Faizullah)
Title: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus chloroquine to treat vivax malaria in Afghanistan: an open randomized, non-inferiority, trial
Source: MALARIA JOURNAL, 9: Art. No. 105 APR 21 2010
Abstract: Background: Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection, the parasite responsible for the majority of its malaria burden. Chloroquine resistance in P. vivax is emerging in Asia. Therapeutic responses across Afghanistan have not been evaluated in detail.
Methods: Between July 2007 and February 2009, an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in patients aged three months and over with slide-confirmed P. vivax mono-infections was conducted. Consistent with current national guidelines, primaquine was not administered. Subjects were followed up daily during the acute phase of illness (days 0-3) and weekly until day 56. The primary endpoint was the overall cumulative parasitological failure rate at day 56 after the start of treatment, with the hypothesis being that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was non-inferior compared to chloroquine (Delta = 5% difference in proportion of failures).
Results: Of 2,182 individuals with positive blood films for P. vivax, 536 were enrolled in the trial. The day 28 cure rate was 100% in both treatment groups. Parasite clearance was more rapid with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than chloroquine. At day 56, there were more recurrent infections in the chloroquine arm (8.9%, 95% CI 6.0-13.1%) than the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm (2.8%, 95% CI 1.4-5.8%), a difference in cumulative recurrence rate of 6.1% (2-sided 90% CI + 2.6 to + 9.7%). The log-rank test comparing the survival curves confirmed the superiority of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine over chloroquine (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that a lower initial haemoglobin concentration was also independently associated with recurrence. Both regimens were well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported.
Conclusions: Chloroquine remains an efficacious treatment for the treatment of vivax malaria in Afghanistan. In a setting where radical therapy cannot be administered, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine provides additional benefit in terms of post-treatment prophylaxis, reducing the incidence of recurrence from 4-8 weeks after treatment.
ISSN: 1475-2875
Article Number: 105
DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-105

Record 16 of 726
Author(s): Leeyaphan, C (Leeyaphan, C.); Kulthanan, K (Kulthanan, K.); Jongjareamprasert, K (Jongjareamprasert, K.); Dhana, N (Dhana, N.)
Title: Drug-induced angioedema without urticaria: prevalence and clinical features
Abstract: Background
Angioedema without urticaria can be caused by drugs. The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence and clinical features of patients with drug-induced angioedema without urticaria.
This study retrospectively reviewed case records at Siriraj Hospital, between January 2007 and December 2008. Patients aged at least 15 years were included.
The prevalence of drug-induced angioedema without urticaria among patients with adverse drug reactions was 2.3%/year. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were the most common cause (50%), followed by antibiotics (20%). The commonest NSAID which induced angioedema were ibuprofen and diclofenac. The common sites were periorbital area (67.3%) and lips (27.6%). The median duration of suspected drug therapy before the development of angioedema was 1 day with the range of 10 min to 23 days.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics were the most common drugs causing angioedema without urticaria. The duration of onset ranged from minutes to days. After stopping the suspected drugs, symptoms disappeared within 2-5 days in most patients.
ISSN: 0926-9959
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03489.x

Record 17 of 726
Author(s): Gruson, KI (Gruson, Konrad I.); Pillai, G (Pillai, Gita); Vanadurongwan, B (Vanadurongwan, Bavornat); Parsons, BO (Parsons, Bradford O.); Flatow, EL (Flatow, Evan L.)
Title: Early clinical results following staged bilateral primary total shoulder arthroplasty
Abstract: Background: The advantages of performing either a single- or 2-staged joint replacement has been reviewed extensively in the hip and knee arthroplasty literature, but far less data exist regarding total shoulder replacements. In the appropriate clinical setting, bilateral total shoulder arthroplasty yields excellent functional results with a low complication profile.
Materials and methods: We evaluated retrospectively the records of 13 consecutive patients (26 shoulders) who underwent staged bilateral primary total shoulder replacements by a single surgeon, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months for each side (range, 12.0-61.5). The interval between replacements averaged 7.4 months (range, 0.5-26.0).
Results: The mean unadjusted baseline Constant score for the first versus the second side was not significant (35 vs 41, P=.3). These scores improved to 73 and 72 by final follow-up (both P<.0001). Mean pain scores on the visual analog scale (VAS) improved from 6.9 to 0.9 (P<.0001). We found no difference in the estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time, or hospital length of stay (LOS) between the sides. Significantly higher mean scores were demonstrated in all components of the SF-36 questionnaire over a normalized cohort of U.S. age-matched males and females by final follow-up. All patients were satisfied with both procedures.
Conclusion: Staged, bilateral total shoulder arthroplasty results in excellent functional outcomes and high satisfaction in subjective patient assessment. We currently recommend a minimum of 6 weeks between replacements to allow for appropriate tissue healing and rehabilitation.
ISSN: 1058-2746
DOI: 10.1016/j.jse.2009.04.005

Record 18 of 726
Author(s): Moongkarndi, P (Moongkarndi, Primchanien); Srisawat, C (Srisawat, Chatchawan); Saetun, P (Saetun, Putita); Jantaravinid, J (Jantaravinid, Jiraporn); Peerapittayamongkol, C (Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon); Soi-Ampornkul, R (Soi-ampornkul, Rungtip); Junnu, S (Junnu, Sarawut); Sinchaikul, S (Sinchaikul, Supachok); Chen, ST (Chen, Shui-Tein); Charoensilp, P (Charoensilp, Patcharakajee); Thongboonkerd, V (Thongboonkerd, Visith); Neungton, N (Neungton, Neelobol)
Title: Protective Effect of Mangosteen Extract against beta-Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Altered Proteome in SK-N-SH Cells
Source: JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 9 (5): 2076-2086 MAY 2010
ISSN: 1535-3893
DOI: 10.1021/pr100049v

Record 19 of 726
Author(s): Chosrowjan, H (Chosrowjan, Haik); Taniguchi, S (Taniguchi, Seiji); Mataga, N (Mataga, Noboru); Nakanishi, T (Nakanishi, Takeshi); Haruyama, Y (Haruyama, Yoshihiro); Sato, S (Sato, Shuta); Kitamura, M (Kitamura, Masaya); Tanaka, F (Tanaka, Fumio)
Title: Effects of the Disappearance of One Charge on Ultrafast Fluorescence Dynamics of the FMN Binding Protein
Source: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, 114 (18): 6175-6182 MAY 13 2010
Abstract: Crystal structures of E13T (G1u13 was replaced by Thr13) and E13Q (G1u13 was replaced by G1n13) FMN binding proteins (FMN-bp) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, strain Miyazaki F, were determined by the X-ray diffraction method. Geometrical factors related to photoinduced electron transfer from Trp32, Tyr35, and Trp106 to the excited isoalloxazine (Iso*) were compared among the three forms of FMN-bp. The rate of ET is considered to be fastest from Trp32 to Iso* in FMN-bp and then from Tyr35 and Trp106. The distances between lso and Trp32 did not change appreciably (0.705-0.712 nm) among wr, Elyr, and E13Q FiV1Nbps, though the distances between Iso and Tyr35 or Trp106 became a little shorter by ca. 0.01 nm in both mutated FMN-bps. The distances between the residue at 13 and the ET donors or acceptor in the mutated proteins, however, changed markedly, compared to WT. Hydrogen bonding pairs and distances between Is and surrounding amino acids were not modified when Glu 13 was replaced by Thr13 or Gin 13. Effects of elimination of ionic charge at Glu 13 on the ultrafast fluorescence dynamics in E13T and E13Q were investigated comparing to WT, by means of a fluorescence up-conversion method. Fluorescence lifetimes were tau(1) = 107 fs (alpha(1) = 0.86), tau(2) = 475 fs (alpha(2) = 0.12), and tau(3) = 30 Ps (alpha(3) = 0.02) in El3T and tau(1) = 134 fs (alpha(1) = 0.85), tau(2)= 746 fs (alpha(2) = 0.12), and tau(3) = 30 ps (alpha(3) = 0.03) in E13Q, which are compared to the reported lifetimes in WT, tau(1) = 168 fs (alpha(1) = 0.95) and tau(2) = 1.4 Ps (alpha(2) = 0.05). Average lifetimes (tau(Av) = Sigma(2or3)(i=1)alpha(i)iota(o)) were 0.75 ps in E13T, 1.10 ps in E13Q, and 0.23 ps in WT, which implies that tau(AV) was 3.3 times longer in E13T and 4.8 times longer in E13Q, compared to WT. The ultrafast fluorescence dynamics of WT did not change when solvent changed from H2O to D2O. Static Er rates (inverse of average lifetimes) were analyzed with static structures of the three systems of FMN-bp. Net electrostatic (ES) energies of Iso and Trp32, on which ET rates depend, were 0.0263 eV in WT, 0.322 eV in E13T, and 0.412 eV in E13Q. The calculated ET rates were in excellent agreement with the observed ones in all systems.
ISSN: 1520-6106
DOI: 10.1021/jp912137s

Record 20 of 726
Author(s): Putri, SP (Putri, Sastia Prama); Kinoshita, H (Kinoshita, Hiroshi); Ihara, F (Ihara, Fumio); Igarashi, Y (Igarashi, Yasuhiro); Nihira, T (Nihira, Takuya)
Title: Ophiosetin, a new tetramic acid derivative from the mycopathogenic fungus Elaphocordyceps ophioglossoides
Source: JOURNAL OF ANTIBIOTICS, 63 (4): 195-198 APR 2010
ISSN: 0021-8820
DOI: 10.1038/ja.2010.8

Record 21 of 726
Author(s): Ngamsaad, W (Ngamsaad, Waipot); Yojina, J (Yojina, Jiraporn); Triampo, W (Triampo, Wannapong)
Title: Theoretical studies of phase-separation kinetics in a Brinkman porous medium
Abstract: Although the coarsening of binary fluid mixtures in porous media has been of great interest for some time, there are still no complete theories for describing the relevant mechanisms, and more theoretical work needs to be carried out. In this work, we have proposed a simple model for phase separation of binary fluids in a porous medium, where the Brinkman-extended-Darcy equation and Cahn-Hilliard equation are the dynamical constitutions. Using the dimensional analysis approach, our findings lead to the prediction of domain coarsening in a porous medium for several regimes, including the conventional power laws. In addition, we have found that slowed-down coarsening dynamics are caused by the hydrodynamic screening effect, which is governed by the logarithmic law for this regime. Our theoretical results are at least qualitatively consistent with previous reports using simulations or experiments.
ISSN: 1751-8113
Article Number: 202001
DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/43/20/202001

Record 22 of 726
Author(s): Overman, A (Overman, A.); Bumrungpert, A (Bumrungpert, A.); Kennedy, A (Kennedy, A.); Martinez, K (Martinez, K.); Chuang, CC (Chuang, C-C); West, T (West, T.); Dawson, B (Dawson, B.); Jia, W (Jia, W.); McIntosh, M (McIntosh, M.)
Title: Polyphenol-rich grape powder extract (GPE) attenuates inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY, 34 (5): 800-808 MAY 2010
Abstract: Background: Obesity-associated inflammation is characterized by an increased abundance of macrophages (M Phi s) in white adipose tissue (WAT), leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins (PGs) that can cause insulin resistance. Grape powder extract (GPE) is rich in phenolic phytochemicals that possess anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Objective: We examined the ability of GPE to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in human M Phi s and silence the cross-talk between human M Phi s and adipocytes.
Design: We investigated the effect of GPE pretreatment on LPS-mediated activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and induction of inflammatory genes in human M Phi s (that is, differentiated U937 cells). In addition, we determined the effect of GPE pretreatment of MFs on inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes incubated with LPS-challenged M Phi-conditioned medium (M Phi-CM).
Methods and Results: Pretreatment of M Phi s with GPE attenuated LPS-induction of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1 beta; chemokines, such as IL-8 and interferon-g inducible protein-10 (IP-10); and a marker of PG production, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Grape powder extract also attenuated LPS activation of MAPKs, NF-kappa B and AP-1 (c-Jun), as evidenced by decreased (1) phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38; (2) degradation of I kappa B alpha and activation of an NF-kappa B reporter construct; and (3) phosphorylation of c-Jun and Elk-1. Using LPS-challenged M Phi-CM, GPE pretreatment attenuated MF-mediated inflammatory gene expression, activation of an NF-kappa B reporter and suppression of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human adipocytes.
Conclusion: Collectively, these data demonstrate that GPE attenuates LPS-mediated inflammation in M Phi s, possibly by decreasing the activation of MAPKs, NF-kappa B and AP-1, and that GPE decreases the capacity of LPS-stimulated MFs to inflame adipocytes and cause insulin resistance. International Journal of Obesity (2010) 34, 800-808; doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.296; published online 26 January 2010
ISSN: 0307-0565
DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2009.296

Record 23 of 726
Author(s): Baowan, D (Baowan, Duangkamon); Cox, BJ (Cox, Barry J.); Hill, JM (Hill, James M.)
Title: Discrete and Continuous Approximations for Nanobuds
Abstract: Both discrete and continuous approximations are employed to determine the join structure involved in the novel carbon nanostructure formed from a C60 fullerene and a carbon nanotube, namely a nanobud. First, following the methodology of the authors' previous work, using a least squares minimization procedure, discrete models are used to join a fullerene and a carbon nanotube by minimizing both the variation in the bond length and the variation in the bond angle. These purely geometrical approaches are closely related to the bonded potential energy method adopted by several authors. Second, by employing a calculus of variations technique, a continuous approximation to the nanobud is determined. In this case, there are also two models depending upon the sign of the curvature of the join profile. We find that the discrete and the continuous approximations are in reasonable overall agreement. However, there is no experimental or simulation data to determine which procedure gives the more realistic results.
ISSN: 1536-383X
DOI: 10.1080/15363830903586625

Record 24 of 726
Author(s): Sungkanuparph, S (Sungkanuparph, Somnuek)
Title: Mortality rates in HIV-infected patients with second failure of antiretroviral therapy are still high: a lesson from NA-ACCORD
Abstract: In clinical practice, a significant proportion of HIV-infected patients still experience treatment failure during antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is limited information regarding the second treatment failure and its mortality rate. This article assessed the findings of a recently published paper describing analyzed data from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. A total of 7159 out of 36,188 patients who received ART had a second virologic failure from ART. Although the risk of second failure decreased from 1996 to 2005 owing to the evolution of ART, the cumulative mortality at 5 years after onset of second failure was 26%. Strategies to prevent treatment failure are urgently needed in order to minimize the mortality among HIV-infected patients receiving ART.
ISSN: 1478-7210
DOI: 10.1586/ERI.10.18

Record 25 of 726
Author(s): Limsuwan, T (Limsuwan, Ticha); Castells, MC (Castells, Mariana C.)
Title: Outcomes and safety of rapid desensitization for chemotherapy hypersensitivity
Source: EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG SAFETY, 9 (1): 39-53 JAN 2010
Abstract: Importance of the field: The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to chemotherapy agents has increased because of increasing number of cancer survivors are exposed to repeated courses of sensitizing agents. Replacement with an alternative chemotherapy regimen is often limited by tumor sensitivity. Rapid desensitization offers an effective mean to allow continuation of the treatment to which patients have presented HSRs.
Areas covered in this review: We review the methods, outcome and safety of the rapid desensitization protocol developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School Affiliate, based on our recent publication "Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy: outcome and safety of rapid desensitization in 413 cases". Literature search was conducted through Medline (from January 1976 to September 2009), using PubMed.
What the reader will gain: The article will give insight to clinical manifestations of immediate HSR to various chemotherapy agents and their presumably different immunopathomechanism. Risk assessment, including skin testing in those presented HSRs to platins and details on rapid desensitization process and its pitfalls will be discussed.
Take home message: Standard protocol of rapid desensitization, administering under multidisciplinary team approach, is safe and effective in overcoming immediate HSRs to platins, taxanes, doxorubicin and rituximab via both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes.
ISSN: 1474-0338
DOI: 10.1517/14740330903446936

Record 26 of 726
Author(s): Nateewattana, J (Nateewattana, Jomjun); Trichaiyaporn, S (Trichaiyaporn, Siripen); Saouy, M (Saouy, Maliwan); Nateewattana, J (Nateewattana, Jintapat); Thavornyutikarn, P (Thavornyutikarn, Prasak); Pengchai, P (Pengchai, Petch); Choonluchanon, S (Choonluchanon, Somporn)
Title: Monitoring of arsenic in aquatic plants, water, and sediment of wastewater treatment ponds at the Mae Moh Lignite power plant, Thailand
Abstract: Mae Moh is a risky area for arsenic contamination caused by the effluent from biowetland ponds in Mae Moh lignite-fuelled power plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the arsenic concentrations of Mae Moh biowetland ponds and determine the main factors which are important for arsenic phytoremediation in the treatment system. The result revealed that arsenic concentrations in the supernant were in the range of less than 1.0 mu g As L (-aEuro parts per thousand 1) to 2.0 mu g As L (-aEuro parts per thousand 1) while those in the sediment were in the range of 25-200 mu g As kg soil (-aEuro parts per thousand 1). Both values were below the Thailand national standard of 0.25 mg As L (-aEuro parts per thousand 1) for water and 27 mg As kg soil (-aEuro parts per thousand 1) for the soil. Arsenic accumulation in the biomass of 5 aquatic plants at the biowetland ponds ranged from 123.83 to 280.53 mg As kgPlant (-aEuro parts per thousand 1). Regarding the result of regression analysis (R (2) = 0.474 to 0.954), high concentrations of organic matter and other soluble ions as well as high pH value in the sediment could significantly enhance the removal of soluble arsenic in the wetland ponds. From the regression equation of accumulated arsenic concentration in each aquatic plant, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. (R (2) = 0.954), Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (R (2) = 0.850), and Typha angustifolia (L.) (R (2) = 0.841) were found to be preferable arsenic removers for wastewater treatment pond in the condition of low Eh value and high content of solid phase EC and phosphorus. On the other hand, Canna glauca (L.) (R (2) = 0.749) appeared to be favorable arsenic accumulator for the treatment pond in the condition of high Eh value and high concentration of soluble EC.
ISSN: 0167-6369
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-0970-1

Record 27 of 726
Author(s): Koomanachai, P (Koomanachai, Pornpan); Bulik, CC (Bulik, Catharine C.); Kuti, JL (Kuti, Joseph L.); Nicolau, DP (Nicolau, David P.)
Title: Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Intravenous Antibiotics Against Gram-Negative Bacteria Collected in the United States
Source: CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS, 32 (4): 766-779 APR 2010
Abstract: Background: In the era of escalating antimicrobial resistance, the choice of effective empiric antimicrobial therapy has become considerably more difficult. In an attempt to improve antimicrobial selection, pharmacodynamic modeling that considers the drug, dose, dosing interval, and duration of infusion is increasingly used as a tool to assist in the clinical decision-making process.
Objective: The aim of the PASSPORT (Probability of target attainment of Antibacterial agents Studied for Susceptibility and Pharmacodynamic Optimization in Regional Trials) study was to compare the probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic exposure (eg, T>MIC, AUC/MIC) of common intravenous antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Methods: Using a 5000-patient Monte Carlo simulation, pharmacodynamic analyses were conducted for standard and high-dose, prolonged (ie, 3- to 4-hour) infusions of cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam in adult patients with normal renal function (>= 50 mL/min). MIC data were incorporated from the 2008 TRUST (Tracking Resistance in the United States Today)-12 surveillance program, a long-running resistance study in 56 participating US hospitals. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was determined for each regimen against each population of E coli, K pneumoniae, A baumannii, and P aeruginosa. Optimal CFR was defined a priori as 90%.
Results: All of the B-lactam regimens had optimal CFRs against E coli, and all but piperacillin/tazobactam 3.375 g q6h had optimal CFRs against K pneumoniae. The fluoroquinolones had the lowest CFRs against all of the pathogen populations tested (73.2%-88.9% against E coli and K pneumoniae; 44.5%-61.9% against A baumannii and P aeruginosa). Optimal CFR against A baumannii was not achieved with any of the regimens. Against P aeruginosa, high-dose, prolonged-infusion doripenem and meropenem had CFRs of 97.2% to 98.8%, followed by high-dose, prolonged-infusion ceftazidime (93.3%) and cefepime (93.2%). High-dose, prolonged-infusion regimens were associated with increased CFRs for all beta-lactams by similar to 10% over that of standard 0.5-hour infusion regimens against the nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.
Conclusions: Based on this model, standard doses of most intravenous B-lactam regimens had high probabilities of achieving optimal exposure against Enterobacteriaceae. For nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli such as A baumannii and P aeruginosa, high-dose, prolonged infusions of cefepime, ceftazidime, doripenem, and meropenem had the highest probabilities of achieving bactericidal exposure. (Clin Ther. 2010;32:766-779) (C) 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc.
ISSN: 0149-2918
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.04.003

Record 28 of 726
Author(s): Anantamongkol, U (Anantamongkol, Utchariya); Charoenphandhu, N (Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol); Wongdee, K (Wongdee, Kannikar); Teerapornpuntakit, J (Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn); Suthiphongchai, T (Suthiphongchai, Tuangporn); Prapong, S (Prapong, Siriwan); Krishnamra, N (Krishnamra, Nateetip)
Title: Transcriptome analysis of mammary tissues reveals complex patterns of transporter gene expression during pregnancy and lactation
Source: CELL BIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 34 (1): 67-74 JAN 2010
Abstract: As a complex Ca2+-rich fluid mixture of water, casein, lactose and several ions, milk secretion requires a number of unknown transporters, which can be identified by a genome-wide microarray study in mammary tissues of lactating animals. Ca2+ was reported to be secreted across mammary epithelial cells through the transcellular pathway, presumably involving TRPC (canonical transient receptor potential) channels. In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to demonstrate that the human mammary cell line MCF-7, as well as rat mammary tissues from pregnant and lactating rats, expressed TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC6. Expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 were markedly up-regulated, whereas that of TRPC3 and TRPC4 was down-regulated in the early lactating period. To further identify other transporter genes affected by lactation, a highly sensitive Illumina microarray featuring Bead Array technology was performed on RNA samples from mammary tissues of lactating rats. We found that, of the 384 transcripts changed during lactation, 31 transcripts were involved in the transport of water and electrolytes, such as Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, I-, Fe2+, sulfate and phosphate. The present study, therefore, provides information for further investigation of the mechanism of lactation-induced transport adaptation in mammary epithelial cells.
ISSN: 1065-6995
DOI: 10.1042/CBI20090023

Record 29 of 726
Author(s): Manonai, J (Manonai, Jittima); Wattanayingcharoenchai, R (Wattanayingcharoenchai, Rujira); Sarit-apirak, S (Sarit-apirak, Sirirat); Vannatim, N (Vannatim, Nathatai); Chittacharoen, A (Chittacharoen, Apichart)
Title: Prevalence and risk factors of anorectal dysfunction in women with urinary incontinence
Source: ARCHIVES OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS, 281 (6): 1003-1007 JUN 2010
Abstract: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of anorectal dysfunction among women with urinary incontinence.
This cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending the urogynecology clinic. Women with symptoms of urinary incontinence were requested to complete a structured questionnaire.
Four hundred and thirteen women participated in the study and 43.8% had at least one anorectal symptom. The prevalence rates of anal incontinence, constipation, and difficult defecation were 8.0, 38.0, and 25.7%, respectively. The risk factors associated with anorectal dysfunction were age and number of parity.
Anorectal dysfunction was prevalent among women with urinary incontinence; age and number of parity were the risk factors. All women with symptoms of urinary incontinence should be evaluated about anorectal symptoms.
ISSN: 0932-0067
DOI: 10.1007/s00404-009-1223-9

Record 30 of 726
Author(s): Kaewphinit, T (Kaewphinit, Thongchai); Santiwatanakul, S (Santiwatanakul, Somchai); Promptmas, C (Promptmas, Chamras); Chansiri, K (Chansiri, Kosum)
Title: Detection of Non-Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genomic DNA Using Piezoelectric DNA-Based Biosensors
Source: SENSORS, 10 (3): 1846-1858 MAR 2010
Abstract: Piezoelectric DNA-based biosensor technology was developed as a new method for detection of M. tuberculosis. This method consists of immobilizing a thiol-modified oligonucleotide probe on the gold electrode surface of a quartz crystal, using a self-assembled monolayer method. The advantage of this study is that a non-amplified genomic bacterial DNA target was used. Instead, the genomic DNA was digested by restriction enzyme to obtain DNA fragments containing the target sequence. The fabricated biosensor was evaluated through an examination of 200 samples. No cross hybridization were observed against M. avium complex and other microorganisms. This target DNA preparation, without PCR amplification, will reduce time, costs, and the tedious step of amplification.
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s100301846

Record 31 of 726
Author(s): Dejnirattisai, W (Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa); Jumnainsong, A (Jumnainsong, Amonrat); Onsirisakul, N (Onsirisakul, Naruthai); Fitton, P (Fitton, Patricia); Vasanawathana, S (Vasanawathana, Sirijitt); Limpitikul, W (Limpitikul, Wannee); Puttikhunt, C (Puttikhunt, Chunya); Edwards, C (Edwards, Carolyn); Duangchinda, T (Duangchinda, Thaneeya); Supasa, S (Supasa, Sunpetchuda); Chawansuntati, K (Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai); Malasit, P (Malasit, Prida); Mongkolsapaya, J (Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip); Screaton, G (Screaton, Gavin)
Title: Cross-Reacting Antibodies Enhance Dengue Virus Infection in Humans
Source: SCIENCE, 328 (5979): 745-748 MAY 7 2010
Abstract: Dengue virus co-circulates as four serotypes, and sequential infections with more than one serotype are common. One hypothesis for the increased severity seen in secondary infections is antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) leading to increased replication in Fc receptor-bearing cells. In this study, we have generated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies to dengue virus. Antibodies to the structural precursor-membrane protein (prM) form a major component of the response. These antibodies are highly cross-reactive among the dengue virus serotypes and, even at high concentrations, do not neutralize infection but potently promote ADE. We propose that the partial cleavage of prM from the viral surface reduces the density of antigen available for viral neutralization, leaving dengue viruses susceptible to ADE by antibody to prM, a finding that has implications for future vaccine design.
ISSN: 0036-8075
DOI: 10.1126/science.1185181

Record 32 of 726
Author(s): Boonkusol, D (Boonkusol, Duangjai); Dinnyes, A (Dinnyes, Andras); Faisaikarm, T (Faisaikarm, Tassanee); Sangsuwan, P (Sangsuwan, Parisatcha); Pratipnatalang, N (Pratipnatalang, Nathnapith); Sa-Ardrit, M (Sa-Ardrit, Mayurachat); Saikhun, K (Saikhun, Kulnasan); Svasti, S (Svasti, Saovaros); Vadolas, J (Vadolas, Jim); Winichagoon, P (Winichagoon, Pranee); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat); Kitiyanant, Y (Kitiyanant, Yindee)
Title: Effect of human beta-globin bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis on embryo cryopreservation in mouse models
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation for four transgenic (TG) thalassaemic mouse strains, which is a key element of the ongoing gene banking efforts for these high-value animals. Heterozygous TG embryos were produced by breeding four lines of TG males to wild-type (WT) females (C57BL/6J). Intact two-cell embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification in straws using 35% ethylene glycol. Survival rates of cryopreserved embryos ranged between 91.1% (102/112) and 93.6% (176/188) without significant differences between the lines. In contrast, the paternal line had a significant effect on the development of these embryos to the blastocyst stage, which ranged from 50.6% (92/182) to 77.5% (79/102). This effect was also noted following embryo transfers, with implantation rates varying from 17.3% (19/110) to 78.1% (35/45). The results demonstrate that the in vivo developmental potential is significantly influenced by TG line and reveal a specific line effect on cryosurvival. All bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic fetuses developed from vitrified-warmed embryos showed expression of the human beta-globin transgene. In conclusion, the present study shows a strong TG line effect on developmental competence following cryopreservation and the vitrification method was successful to bank the human beta-globin TG-expressing mouse strains.
ISSN: 1031-3613
DOI: 10.1071/RD09128

Record 33 of 726
Author(s): Kitamura, S (Kitamura, S.); Thong-Aree, S (Thong-Aree, S.); Madsri, S (Madsri, S.); Poonswad, P (Poonswad, P.)
Source: RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY, 58 (1): 145-156 FEB 28 2010
Abstract: Knowledge of the presence and distribution of species is crucial for designing and evaluating conservation strategies within a region. We conducted a camera-trapping survey of terrestrial mammal and bird diversity in a small isolated forest of southern Thailand over 3 yr. A total of 15 camera traps, which accumulated 11,106 camera-days, were set in three forest types: primary, logged, and hill forests. Despite its small size, isolation, and surrounding agricultural areas, a total of 35 mammal species, eight bird species, and one reptile species were recorded in the forest system. The total number of species photographed was similar among forest types (26-30 species), and rarefaction curves of each forest did not indicate any differences in the relationship between sampling effort and recorded species richness. As the activity period of these animals does not appear to be affected by human activities, we believe that the effect of direct poaching on large mammals in the study area is negligible. Although we did not observe any previously unrecorded animals in our study site, our findings are very valuable and point to the importance of biodivcrsity conservation efforts in these small fragmented and human-modified forest landscapes.
ISSN: 0217-2445

Record 34 of 726
Author(s): Mischak, H (Mischak, Harald); Kolch, W (Kolch, Walter); Aivaliotis, M (Aivaliotis, Michalis); Bouyssie, D (Bouyssie, David); Court, M (Court, Magali); Dihazi, H (Dihazi, Hassan); Dihazi, GH (Dihazi, Gry H.); Franke, J (Franke, Julia); Garin, J (Garin, Jerome); de Peredo, AG (de Peredo, Anne Gonzalez); Iphofer, A (Iphoefer, Alexander); Jansch, L (Jaensch, Lothar); Lacroix, C (Lacroix, Chrystelle); Makridakis, M (Makridakis, Manousos); Masselon, C (Masselon, Christophe); Metzger, J (Metzger, Jochen); Monsarrat, B (Monsarrat, Bernard); Mrug, M (Mrug, Michal); Norling, M (Norling, Martin); Novak, J (Novak, Jan); Pich, A (Pich, Andreas); Pitt, A (Pitt, Andrew); Bongcam-Rudloff, E (Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik); Siwy, J (Siwy, Justyna); Suzuki, H (Suzuki, Hitoshi); Thongboonkerd, V (Thongboonkerd, Visith); Wang, LS (Wang, Li-Shun); Zoidakis, J (Zoidakis, Jerome); Zurbig, P (Zuerbig, Petra); Schanstra, JP (Schanstra, Joost P.); Vlahou, A (Vlahou, Antonia)
Title: Comprehensive human urine standards for comparability and standardization in clinical proteome analysis
Abstract: Purpose: Urine proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool for biomarker discovery. The purpose of this study is the development of a well-characterized "real life" sample that can be used as reference standard in urine clinical proteomics studies.
Experimental design: We report on the generation of male and female urine samples that are extensively characterized by different platforms and methods (CE-MS, LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, 1-D gel analysis in combination with nano-LC MS/MS (using LTQ-FT ultra), and 2-DE-MS) for their proteome and peptidome. In several cases analysis involved a definition of the actual biochemical entities, i.e. proteins/peptides associated with molecular mass and detected PTMs and the relative abundance of these compounds.
Results: The combination of different technologies allowed coverage of a wide mass range revealing the advantages and complementarities of the different technologies. Application of these samples in "inter-laboratory" and "inter-platform" data comparison is also demonstrated.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: These well-characterized urine samples are freely available upon request to enable data comparison especially in the context of biomarker discovery and validation studies. It is also expected that they will provide the basis for the comprehensive characterization of the urinary proteome.
ISSN: 1862-8346
DOI: 10.1002/prca.200900189

Record 35 of 726
Author(s): Boonsnongcheep, P (Boonsnongcheep, Panitch); Korsangruang, S (Korsangruang, Sirintra); Soonthornchareonnon, N (Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas); Chintapakorn, Y (Chintapakorn, Yupyn); Saralamp, P (Saralamp, Promchit); Prathanturarug, S (Prathanturarug, Sompop)
Title: Growth and isoflavonoid accumulation of Pueraria candollei var. candollei and P. candollei var. mirifica cell suspension cultures
Source: PLANT CELL TISSUE AND ORGAN CULTURE, 101 (2): 119-126 MAY 2010
Abstract: We established cell suspension cultures derived from leaf, stem, and root calli of Pueraria candollei var. candollei and P. candollei var. mirifica using liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.56 mu M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 4.52 mu M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Growth of the cell suspension cultures progressed to the stationary phase within 15-24 days. Methanolic extracts of cell suspension cultures of both varieties of P. candollei were analyzed using a validated HPLC protocol. All cell lines derived from leaf, stem, and root explants produced four major isoflavonoids: daidzein, daidzin, genistein, and genistin; these isoflavonoids were detected only in the roots of intact plants. Furthermore, the isoflavonoid contents of the cell suspension cultures were higher than those of intact plants. Thus, cell suspension culture of both varieties of P. candollei may be an effective tool for isoflavonoid production.
ISSN: 0167-6857
DOI: 10.1007/s11240-010-9668-x

Record 36 of 726
Author(s): Sopalun, K (Sopalun, Kathawut); Thammasiri, K (Thammasiri, Kanchit); Ishikawa, K (Ishikawa, Keiko)
Title: Micropropagation of the Thai orchid Grammatophyllum speciosum blume
Source: PLANT CELL TISSUE AND ORGAN CULTURE, 101 (2): 143-150 MAY 2010
Abstract: Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were induced from shoot tips of Grammatophyllum speciosum, a Thai orchid. The highest frequency of PLBs (93%) were observed on explants incubated on 1/2-Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium containing 2% (w/v) sucrose without any plant growth regulators (PGRs). Tests with different carbon sources compared to sucrose revealed that maltose promoted the highest relative growth of G. speciosum PLBs (7-fold increase), while trehalose and sucrose yielded 5-fold and 4-fold increases, respectively. In 1/2 MS liquid medium, addition of 15 mg/l of chitosan promoted a 7-fold increase in PLB growth while 25 mg/l promoted a 4-fold increase. However, the relative growth rate in solid culture was significantly lower than that in liquid culture. In addition, chitosan supplementation in solid medium promoted shoot formation but not rooting. Plantlet regeneration was induced using a combination of NAA and BA supplementation in 1/2 MS solid medium with optimum induction shoot and root formation at 2.0 mg/l NAA and 1.0 mg/l BA. Using this protocol, approximately 8 months was required to obtain a hundred plantlets from one shoot tip. The plantlets showed no changes in ploidy when tested by flow cytometry.
ISSN: 0167-6857
DOI: 10.1007/s11240-010-9671-2

Record 37 of 726
Author(s): Tangyuenyongwatana, P (Tangyuenyongwatana, Prasan); Gritsanapan, W (Gritsanapan, Wandee)
Title: Quantitative analysis and toxicity determination of artifacts originated in a Thai traditional medicine Prasaplai
Source: PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY, 48 (5): 584-588 MAY 2010
Abstract: Prasaplai is a Thai traditional medicine for relieving dysmenorrhea and adjusting the menstrual cycle. Three fatty acid esters, (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-yl linoleate (1), (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-yl oleate (2) and (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-yl palmitate (3) are formed during storage from the reaction of chemical components in two herbs, i.e., fatty acids in Nigella sativa (L.) (Ranunculaceae) and (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (compound D) in Zingiber cassumunar (Roxb.) (Zingiberaceae). The formations of these artifacts were monitored for 1 year and their amounts were analyzed by HPLC at certain periods of time. The results showed that artifact formation was saturated after 73 days of storage. The amount of each artifact in the saturation period ranged from 3.93 +/- 0.06 to 4.30 +/- 0.18% w/w for compound 1, 1.69 +/- 0.08 to 1.9 +/- 0.13% w/w for compound 2 and 0.09 +/- 0.003 to 0.1 +/- 0.005% w/w for compound 3. Cytotoxicity of the artifacts was evaluated using NCI-H187, KB, and BC cancer cell lines and found that the IC50 of all artifacts in all tests were higher than 20 mu g/mL. For acute toxicity in mice, the LD50 of each artifact was more than 300 mg/kg.</.
ISSN: 1388-0209
DOI: 10.3109/13880200903214223

Record 38 of 726
Author(s): Jirapongsananuruk, O (Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai); Pongpreuksa, S (Pongpreuksa, Sureerat); Sangacharoenkit, P (Sangacharoenkit, Preeda); Visitsunthorn, N (Visitsunthorn, Nualanong); Vichyanond, P (Vichyanond, Pakit)
Title: Identification of the etiologies of chronic urticaria in children: A prospective study of 94 patients
Source: PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, 21 (3): 508-514 MAY 2010
Abstract: The etiologies of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood remains incompletely understood because of limited data in children. The objective of this study was to examine some of the possible etiologies of CU in children by focusing on the functional autoantibody to Fc epsilon RI alpha and IgE, thyroid autoimmunity, urticarial vasculitis, parasitic infestation and food allergy. Children 4-15 yr of age with CU were investigated for complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), antinuclear antibody (ANA), CH50, free-T4 (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibody, autologous serum skin test (ASST), skin prick tests (SPT) for foods, food challenges, and stool examination for parasites. Ninety-four children who met the criteria for CU were recruited. Patients with physical urticaria were excluded. Eosinophilia and elevated ESR were found in 23% and 13%, respectively. High ANA titers were found in 2%. None of these patients had clinical features of urticarial vasculitis, abnormal CH50 level, abnormal TSH and FT4. Anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies were not detected. Positive ASST was found in 38%. There were no differences in medication requirement and CU remission between patients with positive and negative ASST. Parasites were found in 5% without clinical correlation. SPT to foods was positive in 35%. Positive food challenges were found in six/nine patients with positive history of food allergy and two/seven patients with negative history. Food avoidance was beneficial to the subgroup of patients with positive history of food allergy only.
ISSN: 0905-6157
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00912.x

Record 39 of 726
Author(s): Srisuphanunt, M (Srisuphanunt, Mayuna); Karanis, P (Karanis, Panagiotis); Charoenca, N (Charoenca, Naowarut); Boonkhao, N (Boonkhao, Narongsak); Ongerth, JE (Ongerth, Jerry E.)
Title: Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in environmental waters of southwest coastal areas of Thailand
Source: PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH, 106 (6): 1299-1306 MAY 2010
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate water samples collected in coastal areas of Southern Thailand in the years of 2005 and 2008 for their contamination by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. One hundred eighteen water samples of different origin were collected from six Tsunami affected southern provinces of Thailand in early 2005, and they have been analyzed using standardized methodology. Fifteen out of 118 samples (12.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and nine (7.6%) positive for Giardia spp. Additional 42 samples from two same areas were examined 3 years later, in the early 2008. Five out of 42 (11.9%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and three out of 42 (7.1%) were positive for Giardia spp.. Both protozoans were found in reservoir, river/canal, and pond waters. It appears no significant differences (p < 0.05) between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts levels during the two monitoring periods; however, the number of the investigated areas and samples in the second period was significantly less than in the first period. This is the first description on Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in water sources of Thailand, and it suggests the need for water quality control in the interest of public health safety.
ISSN: 0932-0113
DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1795-0

Record 40 of 726
Author(s): Freathy, RM (Freathy, Rachel M.); Mook-Kanamori, DO (Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.); Sovio, U (Sovio, Ulla); Prokopenko, I (Prokopenko, Inga); Timpson, NJ (Timpson, Nicholas J.); Berry, DJ (Berry, Diane J.); Warrington, NM (Warrington, Nicole M.); Widen, E (Widen, Elisabeth); Hottenga, JJ (Hottenga, Jouke Jan); Kaakinen, M (Kaakinen, Marika); Lange, LA (Lange, Leslie A.); Bradfield, JP (Bradfield, Jonathan P.); Kerkhof, M (Kerkhof, Marjan); Marsh, JA (Marsh, Julie A.); Magi, R (Maegi, Reedik); Chen, CM (Chen, Chih-Mei); Lyon, HN (Lyon, Helen N.); Kirin, M (Kirin, Mirna); Adair, LS (Adair, Linda S.); Aulchenko, YS (Aulchenko, Yurii S.); Bennett, AJ (Bennett, Amanda J.); Borja, JB (Borja, Judith B.); Bouatia-Naji, N (Bouatia-Naji, Nabila); Charoen, P (Charoen, Pimphen); Coin, LJM (Coin, Lachlan J. M.); Cousminer, DL (Cousminer, Diana L.); de Geus, EJC (de Geus, Eco J. C.); Deloukas, P (Deloukas, Panos); Elliott, P (Elliott, Paul); Evans, DM (Evans, David M.); Froguel, P (Froguel, Philippe); Glaser, B (Glaser, Beate); Groves, CJ (Groves, Christopher J.); Hartikainen, AL (Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa); Hassanali, N (Hassanali, Neelam); Hirschhorn, JN (Hirschhorn, Joel N.); Hofman, A (Hofman, Albert); Holly, JMP (Holly, Jeff M. P.); Hypponen, E (Hyppoenen, Elina); Kanoni, S (Kanoni, Stavroula); Knight, BA (Knight, Bridget A.); Laitinen, J (Laitinen, Jaana); Lindgren, CM (Lindgren, Cecilia M.); McArdle, WL (McArdle, Wendy L.); O'Reilly, PF (O'Reilly, Paul F.); Pennell, CE (Pennell, Craig E.); Postma, DS (Postma, Dirkje S.); Pouta, A (Pouta, Anneli); Ramasamy, A (Ramasamy, Adaikalavan); Rayner, NW (Rayner, Nigel W.); Ring, SM (Ring, Susan M.); Rivadeneira, F (Rivadeneira, Fernando); Shields, BM (Shields, Beverley M.); Strachan, DP (Strachan, David P.); Surakka, I (Surakka, Ida); Taanila, A (Taanila, Anja); Tiesler, C (Tiesler, Carla); Uitterlinden, AG (Uitterlinden, Andre G.); van Duijn, CM (van Duijn, Cornelia M.); Wijga, AH (Wijga, Alet H.); Willemsen, G (Willemsen, Gonneke); Zhang, HT (Zhang, Haitao); Zhao, JH (Zhao, Jianhua); Wilson, JF (Wilson, James F.); Steegers, EAP (Steegers, Eric A. P.); Hattersley, AT (Hattersley, Andrew T.); Eriksson, JG (Eriksson, Johan G.); Peltonen, L (Peltonen, Leena); Mohlke, KL (Mohlke, Karen L.); Grant, SFA (Grant, Struan F. A.); Hakonarson, H (Hakonarson, Hakon); Koppelman, GH (Koppelman, Gerard H.); Dedoussis, GV (Dedoussis, George V.); Heinrich, J (Heinrich, Joachim); Gillman, MW (Gillman, Matthew W.); Palmer, LJ (Palmer, Lyle J.); Frayling, TM (Frayling, Timothy M.); Boomsma, DI (Boomsma, Dorret I.); Smith, GD (Smith, George Davey); Power, C (Power, Chris); Jaddoe, VWV (Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.); Jarvelin, MR (Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta); McCarthy, MI (McCarthy, Mark I.)
Group Author(s): GIANT Consortium; MAGIC; WTCCC; EGG Consortium
Title: Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight
Source: NATURE GENETICS, 42 (5): 430-U73 MAY 2010
Abstract: To identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 x 10(-35)) and rs9883204 in ADCY5 (P = 7 x 10(-15)) were robustly associated with birth weight. Correlated SNPs in ADCY5 were recently implicated in regulation of glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes(1), providing evidence that the well-described association between lower birth weight and subsequent type 2 diabetes(2,3) has a genetic component, distinct from the proposed role of programming by maternal nutrition. Using data from both SNPs, we found that the 9% of Europeans carrying four birth weight-lowering alleles were, on average, 113 g (95% CI 89-137 g) lighter at birth than the 24% with zero or one alleles (P-trend = 7 x 10(-30)). The impact on birth weight is similar to that of a mother smoking 4-5 cigarettes per day in the third trimester of pregnancy(4).
ISSN: 1061-4036
DOI: 10.1038/ng.567

Record 41 of 726
Author(s): Crawley, J (Crawley, Jane); Chu, C (Chu, Cindy); Mtove, G (Mtove, George); Nosten, F (Nosten, Francois)
Title: Malaria in children
Source: LANCET, 375 (9724): 1468-1481 APR 24 2010
Abstract: The past decade has seen an unprecedented surge in political commitment and international funding for malaria control. Coverage with existing control methods (ie, vector control and artemisinin-based combination therapy) is increasing, and, in some Asian and African countries, childhood morbidity and mortality from malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are starting to decline. Consequently, there is now renewed interest in the possibility of malaria elimination. But the ability of the parasite to develop resistance to antimalarial drugs and increasing insecticide resistance of the vector threaten to reduce and even reverse current gains. Plasmodium vivax, with its dormant liver stage, will be particularly difficult to eliminate, and access to effective and affordable treatment at community level is a key challenge. New drugs and insecticides are needed urgently, while use of an effective vaccine as part of national malaria control programmes remains an elusive goal. This Seminar, which is aimed at clinicians who manage children with malaria, especially in resource-poor settings, discusses present knowledge and controversies in relation to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of malaria in children.
ISSN: 0140-6736

Record 42 of 726
Author(s): Pohl, P (Pohl, Pawel); Vorapalawut, N (Vorapalawut, Nopparat); Bouyssiere, B (Bouyssiere, Brice); Carrier, H (Carrier, Herve); Lobinski, R (Lobinski, Ryszard)
Title: Direct multi-element analysis of crude oils and gas condensates by double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS)
Abstract: A double-focusing sector field ICP MS was optimized for the direct simultaneous determination of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, V in organic solutions. Polyatomic interferences originating from the carbon-rich matrix were completely eliminated at a resolution of 4000 allowing the detection limits at the low pg g(-1) level to be obtained ( typically one order of magnitude lower than using a quadrupole ICP MS). A method for the routine comprehensive trace element analysis of xylene solutions of oil samples using external calibration was developed. It was validated by the analysis of three certified reference materials and applied to the analysis of 2 gas condensate samples and 4 oil samples of different origins.
ISSN: 0267-9477
DOI: 10.1039/c000658k

Record 43 of 726
Author(s): Cappellini, MD (Cappellini, Maria Domenica); Porter, J (Porter, John); El-Beshlawy, A (El-Beshlawy, Amal); Li, CK (Li, Chi-Kong); Seymour, JF (Seymour, John F.); Elalfy, M (Elalfy, Mohsen); Gattermann, N (Gattermann, Norbert); Giraudier, S (Giraudier, Stephane); Lee, JW (Lee, Jong-Wook); Chan, LL (Chan, Lee Lee); Lin, KH (Lin, Kai-Hsin); Rose, C (Rose, Christian); Taher, A (Taher, Ali); Thein, SL (Thein, Swee Lay); Viprakasit, V (Viprakasit, Vip); Habr, D (Habr, Dany); Domokos, G (Domokos, Gabor); Roubert, B (Roubert, Bernard); Kattamis, A (Kattamis, Antonis)
Group Author(s): EPIC Study Investigators
Title: Tailoring iron chelation by iron intake and serum ferritin: the prospective EPIC study of deferasirox in 1744 patients with transfusion-dependent anemias
Abstract: Background
Following a clinical evaluation of deferasirox (Exjade (R)) it was concluded that, in addition to baseline body iron burden, ongoing transfusional iron intake should be considered when selecting doses. The 1-year EPIC study, the largest ever investigation conducted for an iron chelator, is the first to evaluate whether fixed starting doses of deferasirox, based on transfusional iron intake, with dose titration guided by serum ferritin trends and safety markers, provides clinically acceptable chelation in patients (aged years) with transfusional hemosiderosis from various types of anemia.
Design and Methods
The recommended initial dose was 20 mg/kg/day for patients receiving 2-4 packed red blood cell units/month and 10 or 30 mg/kg/day was recommended for patients receiving less or more frequent transfusions, respectively. Dose adjustments were based on 3-month serum ferritin trends and continuous assessment of safety markers. The primary efficacy end-point was change in serum ferritin after 52 weeks compared with baseline.
The 1744 patients enrolled had the following conditions; thalassemia (n=1115), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=341), aplastic anemia (n=116), sickle cell disease (n=80), rare anemias (n=43) and other transfused anemias (n=49). Overall, there was a significant reduction in serum ferritin from baseline (-264 ng/mL; P<0.0001), reflecting dosage adjustments and ongoing iron intake. The most common (>5%) adverse events were gastrointestinal disturbances (28%) and skin rash (10%).
Analysis of this large, prospectively collected data set confirms the response to chelation therapy across various anemias, supporting initial deferasirox doses based on transfusional iron intake, with subsequent dose titration guided by trends in serum ferritin and safety markers (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00171821).
ISSN: 0390-6078
DOI: 10.3324/haematol.2009.014696

Record 44 of 726
Author(s): Phayuhasena, S (Phayuhasena, Suwannee); Colgan, DJ (Colgan, Donald J.); Kuvangkadilok, C (Kuvangkadilok, Chaliow); Pramual, P (Pramual, Pairot); Baimai, V (Baimai, Visut)
Title: Phylogenetic relationships among the black fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Thailand based on multiple gene sequences
Source: GENETICA, 138 (6): 633-648 JUN 2010
Abstract: Simulium is a very speciose genus of the black fly family Simuliidae that includes many important pests of humans and animals. Cytotaxonomic and morphological studies have made substantial progress in Simulium systematics. 16S rRNA and ITS-1 DNA sequence studies have assisted this progress. Intensive multi-gene molecular systematic investigations will, however, be required for a comprehensive understanding of the genus' taxonomy and evolution. Our research was conducted to investigate the relationships of Thai Simulium at the subgeneric, species group and species levels. We also examined the possibility of using mitochondrial DNA sequences to facilitate Simulium species identification. Data were collected from three mitochondrial genes (COI, ND4 and 16S rRNA) and two segments of the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA (the D1 to D2 and the D4 expansion regions). The subgenera Simulium and Gomphostilbia were monophyletic in most analyses. Nevermannia included Montisimulium but was otherwise monophyletic in multigene analyses. In most analyses, Simulium and Nevermannia were more closely related to each other than to Gomphostilbia which was usually basal. Species groups were generally monophyletic. Within Gomphostilbia, however, the batoense species group was always paraphyletic to the other two species groups found in Thailand. Three species groups in Simulium were not monophyletic. The tendency to gill filament number reduction for some species groups in the subgenus Simulium was associated with a derived position in multigene analyses. Most species were monophyletic with two exceptions that probably represent species complexes and will present difficulties for rapid mitochondrial DNA identification.
ISSN: 0016-6707
DOI: 10.1007/s10709-010-9437-0

Record 45 of 726
Author(s): Panyarachun, B (Panyarachun, Busaba); Sobhon, P (Sobhon, Prasert); Tinikul, Y (Tinikul, Yotsawan); Chotwiwatthanakun, C (Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj); Anupunpisit, V (Anupunpisit, Vipavee); Anuracpreeda, P (Anuracpreeda, Panat)
Title: Paramphistomum cervi: Surface topography of the tegument of adult fluke
Source: EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY, 125 (2): 95-99 JUN 2010
Abstract: Adult Paramphistomum cervi or rumen fluke are pear-shaped, slightly concave ventrally and convex dorsally. The worm measures about 5-13 mm in length and 2-5 mm in width across the mid-section. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the tegumental surface in all part of the body, appears highly corrugated with transverse folds alternating with grooves and is spineless. At high magnification, the surface of the fold is composed of microfolds or ridges separated by microgrooves or pits. Corrugations and invaginations of the ventral surface are also more extensive than on the dorsal surface of the body. Both anterior and posterior suckers have thick rims covered with transverse folds without spine. The genital pore is situated at the anterior third of the body. There are two types of sensory papillae on the surface: type 1 is bulbous in shape, measuring 10-15 mu m in diameter at the base with nipple-like tips, and type 2 has a similar shape and size and also a short cilia on top. These sensory papillae usually occur in large clusters, each having between 5 and 20 units depending on the region of the body. Clusters of papillae on the ventral surface and around the anterior suckers tend to be more numerous and larger in size. The dorsal surface of the body has the least number of papillae. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0014-4894
DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2009.12.020

Record 46 of 726
Author(s): Pramyothin, P (Pramyothin, Pornpoj); Pithukpakorn, M (Pithukpakorn, Manop); Arakaki, RF (Arakaki, Richard F.)
Title: A 47, XXY patient and Xq21.31 duplication with features of Prader-Willi syndrome: results of array-based comparative genomic hybridization
Source: ENDOCRINE, 37 (3): 379-382 JUN 2010
Abstract: A man diagnosed with 47, XXY during childhood presents an appearance similar to that of Prader-Willi syndrome with hypogonadism and gynecomastia, developmental delay, and short stature and obesity. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed duplication at Xq21.31 in addition to his abnormal karyotype. This duplication was also found in his mother who appeared normal. We raise the possibility that the phenotype in this patient is a combination of both extra X chromosome and Xq21 duplication.
ISSN: 0969-711X
DOI: 10.1007/s12020-010-9330-8

Record 47 of 726
Author(s): Kawami, M (Kawami, Masashi); Yumoto, R (Yumoto, Ryoko); Nagai, J (Nagai, Junya); Junyaprasert, VB (Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep); Soonthornchareonnon, N (Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas); Patanasethanont, D (Patanasethanont, Denpong); Sripanidkulchai, BO (Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn); Takano, M (Takano, Mikihisa)
Title: Effect of Thai Plant Extracts on P-glycoprotein Function and Viability in Paclitaxel-Resistant HepG2 Cells
Abstract: The effects of ethanol extracts from Thai plants on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and cell viability were examined using paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) cells KP018 from Ellipeiopsis cherrevensis and AT80 from Ancistrocladus tectorius increased both rhodamine 123, a typical P-gp substrate, and [H-3]paclitaxel uptake in PR-HepG2 cells However, some extracts such as MT80 from Microcos tomentosa increased rhodamine 123, but not [H-3]paclitaxel, uptake, while MM80 from Micromelum minutum increased only [H-3]paclitaxel uptake Thus, the effects of extracts of Thai plants on rhodamine 123 uptake were not necessarily the same as those on [H-3]paclitaxel uptake Purified compounds such as bergapten did not affect the uptake of either substrate KP018, AT80, and MM80 increased [H-3]paclitaxel uptake and decreased the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner Among these extracts, KP018 showed the most potent cytotoxicity The cytotoxic potency of KP018 on PR-HepG2 cells was similar to that on wild-type HepG2 cells, and was not potentiated by verapamil At concentrations resulting in no cytotoxicity. AT80 and MM80 potentiated paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in PR-HepG2 cells These results indicate that K018 may be a useful source to search for a new anticancer drug, while AT80 and MM80 may be useful as modulators of P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cells
ISSN: 1347-4367

Record 48 of 726
Author(s): Jitrapakdee, S (Jitrapakdee, S.); Wutthisathapornchai, A (Wutthisathapornchai, A.); Wallace, JC (Wallace, J. C.); MacDonald, MJ (MacDonald, M. J.)
Title: Regulation of insulin secretion: role of mitochondrial signalling
Source: DIABETOLOGIA, 53 (6): 1019-1032 JUN 2010
Abstract: Pancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. During postprandial periods an elevated level of plasma glucose rapidly stimulates insulin secretion to decrease hepatic glucose output and promote glucose uptake into other tissues, principally muscle and adipose tissues. Beta cell mitochondria play a key role in this process, not only by providing energy in the form of ATP to support insulin secretion, but also by synthesising metabolites (anaplerosis) that can act, both intra- and extramitochondrially, as factors that couple glucose sensing to insulin granule exocytosis. ATP on its own, and possibly modulated by these coupling factors, triggers closure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, resulting in membrane depolarisation that increases intracellular calcium to cause insulin secretion. The metabolic imbalance caused by chronic hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia severely affects mitochondrial metabolism, leading to the development of impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. It appears that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase participates directly or indirectly in several metabolic pathways which are important for glucose-induced insulin secretion, including: the pyruvate/malate cycle, the pyruvate/citrate cycle, the pyruvate/isocitrate cycle and glutamate-dehydrogenase-catalysed alpha-ketoglutarate production. These four pathways enable 'shuttling' or 'recycling' of these intermediate(s) into and out of mitochondrion, allowing continuous production of intracellular messenger(s). The purpose of this review is to present an account of recent progress in this area of central importance in the realm of diabetes and obesity research.
ISSN: 0012-186X
DOI: 10.1007/s00125-010-1685-0

Record 49 of 726
Author(s): Ditcharoen, N (Ditcharoen, Nadh); Naruedomkul, K (Naruedomkul, Kanlaya); Cercone, N (Cercone, Nick)
Title: SignMT: An alternative language learning tool
Source: COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 55 (1): 118-130 AUG 2010
Abstract: Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled: the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form We present the SignMT. Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text In the translation process, SignMT takes into account the differences between Thai and Thai sign language in terms of both syntax and semantic to ensure the accuracy of translation. SignMT was designed to be not only an automatic interpreter but also a language learning tool. It provides meaning of each word in both text and image forms which is easy to understand by the deaf The grammar information and the order of the sentence are presented in order to help the deaf in learning Thai, their second language With SignMT, deaf students are less dependent on a teacher, have more freedom to experiment with their own language, and improve their knowledge and learning skill
In our experiment, SignMT was implemented to translate sentences/phrases which were collected from different sources including textbooks, cartoons, bedtime story, and newspapers. SignMT was tested and evaluated in terms of the translation accuracy and user satisfaction The evaluation results show that the translation accuracy is acceptable, and it satisfies the users' needs (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0360-1315
DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.12.009

Record 50 of 726
Author(s): Askie, LM (Askie, Lisa M.); Ballard, RA (Ballard, Roberta A.); Cutter, G (Cutter, Gary); Dani, C (Dani, Carlo); Elbourne, D (Elbourne, Diana); Field, D (Field, David); Hascoet, JM (Hascoet, Jean-Michel); Hibbs, AM (Hibbs, Anna Maria); Kinsella, JP (Kinsella, John P.); Mercier, JC (Mercier, Jean-Christophe); Rich, W (Rich, Wade); Schreiber, MD (Schreiber, Michael D.); Srisuparp, P (Srisuparp, Pimol); Subhedar, NV (Subhedar, Nim V.); Van Meurs, KP (Van Meurs, Krisa P.); Voysey, M (Voysey, Merryn); Barrington, K (Barrington, Keith); Ehrenkranz, RA (Ehrenkranz, Richard A.); Finer, N (Finer, Neil)
Group Author(s): MAPPiNO Collaboration
Title: Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis
Source: BMC PEDIATRICS, 10: Art. No. 15 MAR 23 2010
Abstract: Background: Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD) in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006) showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants.
Methods/Design: The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO) Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification.
Discussion: Thirteen (13) trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion in the MAPPiNO systematic review. To date 11 trials (n = 3298, 92% of available patients) have agreed to participate. Funding was successfully granted from Ikaria Inc as an unrestricted grant. A collaborative group was formed in 2006 with data collection commencing in 2007. It is anticipated that data analysis will commence in late 2009 with results being publicly available in 2010.
ISSN: 1471-2431
Article Number: 15
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-15

Record 51 of 726
Author(s): Supakdamrongkul, P (Supakdamrongkul, Piyaporn); Bhumiratana, A (Bhumiratana, Amaret); Wiwat, C (Wiwat, Chanpen)
Title: Optimization of extracellular lipase production from the biocontrol fungus Nomuraea rileyi
Source: BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 20 (6): 595-604 2010
Abstract: Lipases are important cuticle-degrading enzymes that hydrolyze the ester bonds of waxes, fats and lipoproteins during the infection of insects by the fungus Nomuraea rileyi. Lipase production by the N. rileyi strain MJ was optimized by varying environmental and nutritional conditions in culture medium containing different vegetable oils at various concentrations with shaking at 150 rpm for 8 days at 25 degrees C. The maximum lipase production was obtained using castor oil (30.5 +/- 0.6 U mL(-1)), followed in order by coconut oil (20.8 +/- 0.4 U mL(-1)), olive oil (20.8 +/- 0.4 U mL(-1)) and cottonseed oil (20.6 +/- 0.4 U mL(-1)). The highest lipase activity (37.7 +/- 0.4 U mL(-1)) was obtained when castor oil was used at a concentration of 4% (v/v) of basal medium. When the surfactant Tween 80 was added at the fourth day rather than at the beginning of incubation, a maximum lipase activity of 44.9 +/- 3.5 U mL(-1) was obtained. The optimal temperature and pH for lipase production were 25 degrees C and pH 8.0, respectively. This is the first report on lipase production by the biocontrol fungus N. rileyi.
ISSN: 0958-3157
DOI: 10.1080/09583151003661177

Record 52 of 726
Author(s): Sereenonchai, K (Sereenonchai, Kamonthip); Teerasong, S (Teerasong, Saowapak); Chan-Eam, S (Chan-Eam, Sumonmarn); Saetear, P (Saetear, Phoonthawee); Choengchan, N (Choengchan, Nathawut); Uraisin, K (Uraisin, Kanchana); Amornthammarong, N (Amornthammarong, Natchanon); Motomizu, S (Motomizu, Shoji); Nacapricha, D (Nacapricha, Duangjai)
Title: A low-cost method for determination of calcium carbonate in cement by membraneless vaporization with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection
Source: TALANTA, 81 (3): 1040-1044 MAY 15 2010
Abstract: This work presents a flow analysis method for direct quantitation of calcium carbonate in cement without pretreatment of the sample. The method is based on online vaporization of CO2 gas following acidification of the sample inside a small chamber that has a flow of acceptor solution passing around it. Solubilization of the CO2 gas into the acceptor stream changes the conductivity of the acceptor solution causing an increase of signal at the capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection ((CD)-D-4) placed at the outlet of the vaporization chamber. This chamber is an adaption from previous work reported on 'membraneless vaporization' (MBL-VP).
The method can be used in the quality control of production of mixed cement. These cement materials usually have calcium carbonate contents at high concentration range (e.g., 33-99% (w/w)CaCO3). Analysis of samples by this method is direct and convenient as it requires no sample pretreatment. The method is low-cost with satisfactory accuracy and acceptable precision. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0039-9140
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2010.01.057

Record 53 of 726
Author(s): Kambutong, S (Kambutong, Supakeat); Kuhakarn, C (Kuhakarn, Chutima); Tuchinda, P (Tuchinda, Patoomratana); Pohmakotr, M (Pohmakotr, Manat)
Title: Synthesis of (+)-4-Desoxypentenomycin and Analogues
Source: SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART, (9): 1453-1458 MAY 2010
Abstract: A synthesis of (+)-4-desoxypentenomycin is reported here; it involves diastereoselective phenylsulfanylpropylation of an enolate anion derived from methyl (2R,5R,6R)-5,6-dimethoxy-5,6-dimethyl[1,4]dioxane-2-carboxylate, obtained from D-mannitol, and is followed by sulfide oxidation, intramolecular acylation of the alpha-sulfinyl carbanion, sulfoxide elimination, and hydrolysis. Straightforward access to substituted analogues of (+)-4-desoxypentenomycin was also demonstrated by means of Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira, and Heck coupling reactions.
ISSN: 0039-7881
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1218690

Record 54 of 726
Author(s): Sa-nguanmoo, P (Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida); Thawornsuk, N (Thawornsuk, Nutchanart); Rianthavorn, P (Rianthavorn, Pornpimol); Sommanustweechai, A (Sommanustweechai, Angkana); Ratanakorn, P (Ratanakorn, Parntep); Poovorawan, Y (Poovorawan, Yong)
Title: High prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus among captive nonhuman primates
Source: PRIMATES, 51 (2): 167-170 APR 2010
Abstract: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can infect not only humans but also several other nonhuman primates. This study has been conducted to evaluate the comprehensive anti-HAV seroprevalence in captive nonhuman primate populations in Thailand. The prevalence of antibodies against HAV in 96 captive nonhuman primates of 11 species was evaluated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). HAV antibodies were found in 64.7% (11/17) of macaques, 85.7% (6/7) of langurs, 28.4% (10/35) of gibbons, and 94.6% (35/37) of orangutans. However, anti-HAV IgM was not found in any sera. These results indicate that the majority of captive nonhuman primates in Thailand were exposed to HAV. It is possible that some of the animals were infected prior to capture.
ISSN: 0032-8332
DOI: 10.1007/s10329-009-0172-z

Record 55 of 726
Author(s): Millet, YA (Millet, Yves A.); Danna, CH (Danna, Cristian H.); Clay, NK (Clay, Nicole K.); Songnuan, W (Songnuan, Wisuwat); Simon, MD (Simon, Matthew D.); Werck-Reichhart, D (Werck-Reichhart, Daniele); Ausubel, FM (Ausubel, Frederick M.)
Title: Innate Immune Responses Activated in Arabidopsis Roots by Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns
Source: PLANT CELL, 22 (3): 973-990 MAR 2010
Abstract: Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of beta-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid-jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways.
ISSN: 1040-4651
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.069658

Record 56 of 726
Author(s): Huguenin, M (Huguenin, Maya); Bracha, R (Bracha, Rivka); Chookajorn, T (Chookajorn, Thanat); Mirelman, D (Mirelman, David)
Title: Epigenetic transcriptional gene silencing in Entamoeba histolytica: insight into histone and chromatin modifications
Source: PARASITOLOGY, 137 (4): 619-627 APR 2010
Abstract: We have previously discovered a unique mechanism of epigenetic transcriptional gene silencing in the Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites of strain HM-1:IMSS that resulted in the persistent downregulation of the amoebapore A (ap-a) gene, and that could be successfully applied to silence other virulence genes (cpA5, lgll). In order to understand how the silencing is maintained throughout generations, we analysed whether modifications occurred at the chromatin level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were done with antibodies specific to the methylated lysine 4 of E. histolytic histone H3. When the genes were in a transcriptionally silent state, the methylation levels of H3K4 in their coding region were significantly reduced. In contrast, the levels of core histone H3 were consistently higher in the silenced genes. Controlled chromatin digestion with micrococcal nuclease was used to assess changes in nucleosome compaction. We found a significant resistance to digestion in the promoter region of the silenced ap-a and cpA5 genes as compared to the parental strain that expresses those genes. Our data lend further support to the idea that histone modifications and heterochromatin formations are at the basis of the transcriptional silencing of genes in E. histolytica.
ISSN: 0031-1820
DOI: 10.1017/S0031182009991363

Record 57 of 726
Author(s): Ingsathit, A (Ingsathit, Atiporn); Thakkinstian, A (Thakkinstian, Ammarin); Chaiprasert, A (Chaiprasert, Amnart); Sangthawan, P (Sangthawan, Pornpen); Gojaseni, P (Gojaseni, Pongsathorn); Kiattisunthorn, K (Kiattisunthorn, Kriwiporn); Ongaiyooth, L (Ongaiyooth, Leena); Vanavanan, S (Vanavanan, Somlak); Sirivongs, D (Sirivongs, Dhavee); Thirakhupt, P (Thirakhupt, Prapaipim); Mittal, B (Mittal, Bharati); Singh, AK (Singh, Ajay K.)
Group Author(s): Thai-SEEK Grp
Title: Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in the Thai adult population: Thai SEEK study
Abstract: Methods. The population-based Thai Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease (SEEK) study was conducted with cross-sectional stratified-cluster sampling. Serum creatinine was analysed using the modified Jaffe method and then standardized with isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
Results. The study included 3,459 subjects were included in the study. The mean age was 45.2 years (SE = 0.8), and 54.5% were female. Six hundred and twenty-six subjects were identified as having CKD, which evidenced an overall CKD prevalence of 17.5% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 14.6-20.4%]. The CKD prevalence of Stages I, II, III and IV were 3.3% (95% CI = 2.5%, 4.1%), 5.6% (95% CI = 4.2%, 7.0%), 7.5% (95% CI = 6.2%, 8.8%) and 1.1% (95% CI = 0.7%, 1.5%), respectively. The prevalence of CKD was higher in Bangkok, the Northern and Northeastern regions than in the Central and Southern regions. Seven factors (i.e. age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperuricaemia, history of kidney stones and the use of traditional medicines) were associated with CKD. Only 1.9% of the subjects were aware that they had CKD.
Conclusions. CKD prevalence in the Thai population is much higher than previously known and published. Early stages of CKD seem to be as common as later stages. However, albuminuria measurement was not confirmed and adjusting for persistent positive rates resulted in the prevalence of 14.4%. Furthermore, the awareness of CKD was quite low in the Thai population.
ISSN: 0931-0509
DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfp669

Record 58 of 726
Author(s): Tangsudjai, S (Tangsudjai, S.); Pudla, M (Pudla, M.); Limposuwan, K (Limposuwan, K.); Woods, DE (Woods, D. E.); Sirisinha, S (Sirisinha, S.); Utaisincharoen, P (Utaisincharoen, P.)
Title: Involvement of the MyD88-independent pathway in controlling the intracellular fate of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7
Source: MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, 54 (5): 282-290 MAY 2010
Abstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of surviving and multiplying inside macrophages. B. pseudomallei strain SRM117, a LPS mutant which lacks the O-antigenic polysaccharide moiety, is more susceptible to macrophage killing during the early phase of infection than is its parental wild type strain (1026b). In this study, it was shown that the wild type is able to induce expression of genes downstream of the MyD88-dependent (i kappa b zeta, il-6 and tnf-alpha), but not of the MyD88-independent (inos, ifn-beta and irg-1), pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. In contrast, LPS mutant-infected macrophages were able to express genes downstream of both pathways. To elucidate the significance of activation of the MyD88-independent pathway in B. pseudomallei-infected macrophages, the expression of TBK1, an essential protein in the MyD88-independent pathway, was silenced prior to the infection. The results showed that silencing the tbk1 expression interferes with the gene expression profile in LPS mutant-infected macrophages and allows the bacteria to replicate intracellularly, thus suggesting that the MyD88-independent pathway plays an essential role in controlling intracellular survival of the LPS mutant. Moreover, exogenous IFN-gamma upregulated gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway, and interfered with intracellular survival in both wild type and tbk1-knockdown macrophages infected with either the wild type or the LPS mutant. These results suggest that gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway is essential in regulating the intracellular fate of B. pseudomallei, and that IFN-gamma regulates gene expression through the TBK1-independent pathway.
ISSN: 0385-5600
DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2010.00205.x

Record 59 of 726
Author(s): Thaenkham, U (Thaenkham, Urusa); Nawa, Y (Nawa, Yukifumi)
Title: Double Strand Problems: Reverse DNA Sequences Deposited in the DNA Database
Source: KOREAN JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, 48 (1): 89-90 MAR 2010
ISSN: 0023-4001
DOI: 10.3347/kjp.2010.48.1.89

Record 60 of 726
Author(s): Traiphol, R (Traiphol, Rakchart); Potai, R (Potai, Ruttayapon); Charoenthai, N (Charoenthai, Nipaphat); Srikhirin, T (Srikhirin, Toemsak); Kerdcharoen, T (Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat); Osotchan, T (Osotchan, Tanakorn)
Title: Effects of Chain Conformation and Chain Length on Degree of Aggregation in Assembled Particles of Conjugated Polymer in Solvents-Nonsolvent: A Spectroscopic Study
Abstract: This article explores photophysical properties and aggregation behaviors of conjugated polymer, poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene](MEH-PPV), in various solvent-nonsolvent systems by utilizing UV/vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The isolated chains of MEH-PPV dispersed in solvents including dichloromethane, chloroform, and tetrahydrofuran adopt either extended or collapsed conformations depending on local polymer-solvent interactions. Aggregation of the MEH-PPV in these solvents is induced by addition of a poor solvent, cyclohexane. The formation of aggregates is indicated by the appearance of distinct red-shift peaks in the absorption and PL spectra. The degree of aggregation in each solvent-nonsolvent system is compared by means of absorbance and PL intensity of the aggregate bands. In early stage of the aggregation, the amount of aggregates in system is controlled by the solubility of polymer. When the polymer chains are forced to densely pack within assembled particles by increasing ratio of cyclohexane to 99 v/v %, the conformation of individual chain plays important role. We have found that the extended chains facilitate the aggregation in the assembled particles. Increasing chain length of polymer promotes the aggregation in early stage and densely packed particles. Size distribution of the assembled particles is also found to depend on the choice of solvent. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 48: 894-904, 2010
ISSN: 0887-6266
DOI: 10.1002/polb.21976

Record 61 of 726
Author(s): Chokchaisiri, R (Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn); Chaneiam, N (Chaneiam, Nattawara); Svasti, S (Svasti, Saovaros); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat); Vadolas, J (Vadolas, Jim); Suksamran, A (Suksamran, Apichart)
Title: Labdane Diterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Curcuma comosa Enhance Fetal Hemoglobin Production in an Erythroid Cell Line
Source: JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS, 73 (4): 724-728 APR 2010
Abstract: Three new labdane diterpenes, curcucomosin A-C (1-3), four known labdane diterpenes, 4-7, and a known diarylheptanoid, 8, were isolated from the aerial parts of Curcuma comosa. The structures of the new diterpenes were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) induction potency of the isolated compounds was examined using a K562 reporter cell line harboring the enhanced green fluorescene protein (EGFP) gene under the control of a (G)gamma-globin promoter. Compound 6, D, exhibited the highest Hb F induction effect of 1.6-fold at 20 mu M.
ISSN: 0163-3864
DOI: 10.1021/np900568k

Record 62 of 726
Author(s): Kornsakulkarn, J (Kornsakulkarn, Jittra); Thongpanchang, C (Thongpanchang, Chawanee); Chainoy, R (Chainoy, Rittikorn); Choowong, W (Choowong, Wilunda); Nithithanasilp, S (Nithithanasilp, Sutichai); Thongpanchangtt, T (Thongpanchangtt, Tienthong)
Title: Bioactive Metabolites from Cultures of Basidiomycete Favolaschia tonkinensis
Source: JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS, 73 (4): 759-762 APR 2010
Abstract: Two strobilurins, 9-methoxystrobilurin B (1) and 9-methoxystrobilurin G (2), two monochlorinated 2,3-dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivatives, 3 and 4a, and butenolide 5, together with four known compounds, strobilurin B, 9-methoxystrobilurin A, and oudemansins A and B, were isolated from culture BCC 18689 of the fungus Favolaschia tonkinensis. 9-Methoxystrobilurins A, B (1), and G (2) and oudemansins A and B exhibited antimalarial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities, while compounds 3, 4a, and 5 displayed only cytotoxic activity.
ISSN: 0163-3864
DOI: 10.1021/np900777r

Record 63 of 726
Author(s): Ratanamart, J (Ratanamart, Jarupa); Huggins, CG (Huggins, Christopher G.); Shaw, JAM (Shaw, James A. M.)
Title: Transgene expression in mononuclear muscle cells not infiltrating inflammatory cells following intramuscular plasmid gene electrotransfer
Source: JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE, 12 (4): 377-384 APR 2010
Abstract: Background In situ electroporation-assisted intramuscular plasmid DNA delivery offers high efficiency for therapeutic protein replacement. Expression may be impaired by an immune response against the plasmid or transgenic protein. Expression of the transgene in non-muscle cells may increase the immune response. Gene transfer efficiency and phenotypic identification of intramuscular transgene-expressing mononuclear cells was studied following electroporation-mediated plasmid delivery.
Methods Plasmids expressing beta-galactosidase (pVR1012-beta gal) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) (pVR1012-eGFP) were electrotransferred into rat tibialis anterior muscles. Both transfection efficiency and the inflammatory response were determined in pVR1012-beta gal-injected muscles by beta-galactosidase and haematoxylin and eosin staining of muscles 7 days post-plasmid injection. Muscles injected with pVR1012-eGFP were stained for CD3, CD68 and desmin at 24 and 48 h post-injection to determine whether mononuclear cells expressing eGFP were of immune or myogenic origin.
Results With electroporation, beta-galactosidase expression was significantly enhanced by up to ten-fold compared to plasmid injection without electroporation. A large area of regenerating muscle fibres and inflammatory cell infiltration was found in electroporated plasmid-injected muscle. No eGFP expression was found in CD3- or CD68-positive cells. Small mononuclear cells expressing eGFP showed negative staining for CD3 and CD68, but all stained positive for desmin.
Conclusions In situ electroporation enhanced transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA delivery into muscle. Alongside its advantage for improving gene transfer, electroporation led to an increased inflammatory response and muscle damage. Mononuclear cells in muscle were transfected with plasmid and expressed the transgene. These cells were of myogenic origin with no evidence of transgene expression in infiltrating inflammatory cells. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN: 1099-498X
DOI: 10.1002/jgm.1448

Record 64 of 726
Author(s): Thanapprapasr, D (Thanapprapasr, Duangmani); Nartthanarung, A (Nartthanarung, Adisak); Likittanasombut, P (Likittanasombut, Puchong); Ayudhya, NIN (Ayudhya, Nathpong Israngura Na); Charakorn, C (Charakorn, Chuenkamon); Udomsubpayakul, U (Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn); Subhadarbandhu, T (Subhadarbandhu, Thanya); Wilailak, S (Wilailak, Sarikapan)
Title: Bone Metastasis in Cervical Cancer Patients Over a 10-Year Period
Abstract: Introduction: Cervical cancer is the major cancer burden in developing countries. Bone is the third most common site of distant metastasis after the lungs and liver. Therefore, the aims of this study were to find the incidence and clinical characteristics of bone metastasis in our hospital.
Patients and Methods: Fifty-one cervical cancer patients with bone metastasis during the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were recruited. All patients' medical records were reviewed and analyzed.
Results: Among 4620 cervical cancer patients, there were 51 patients (1.1%) who had bone metastases. Ten patients' medical records were not found; thus, 41 patients were available for evaluation. The median age of the patients was 49 years. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB was the most common stage (43.9%). Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (80.48%) and received radiation therapy alone as their primary treatment (58.53%). The most common presenting symptom was pain (78.04%). Most of the patients had multiple bone lesions and extrapelvic bone metastases. The lumbar spine was the most common site (36.36%). Sixteen patients (39.02%) were treated by palliative radiation therapy. The median overall survival was 23 months.
Conclusions: Bone metastases could be found at all stages. Common sites were the bone beyond the radiation field of their primary treatment. It was found at a median of 16 months after cervical cancer diagnosis. Currently, there are many varieties of treatment that result only in palliation. This group of patients has a poor prognosis.
ISSN: 1048-891X
DOI: 10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181d4a0a1

Record 65 of 726
Author(s): Suthisisang, CC (Suthisisang, Chuthamanee C.); Poolsup, N (Poolsup, Nalinee); Suksomboon, N (Suksomboon, Naeti); Lertpipopmetha, V (Lertpipopmetha, Vorachart); Tepwitukgid, B (Tepwitukgid, Bhakanit)
Title: Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Naproxen Sodium in the Acute Treatment of Migraine
Source: HEADACHE, 50 (5): 808-818 MAY 2010
Abstract: Objective.-
To assess the efficacy and safety of naproxen sodium in the treatment of acute migraine attacks.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including naproxen sodium have been used in treating migraine attack. A number of clinical trials of naproxen sodium in migraine have been reported. However, it remains to be established whether naproxen sodium unequivocally offers clinical benefits taken into account the desired outcomes in acute migraine therapy as recommended by the International Headache Society.
Clinical trials were identified through electronic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM review, and the Cochrane Library) up to June 2009 and historical searches of relevant articles. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they were (1) double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated naproxen sodium tablet in moderate or severe migraine attacks in adult patients, and (2) reporting the efficacy in terms of headache relief, pain-free, relief of migraine-associated symptoms, sustained headache relief, sustained pain-free, or headache recurrence. Data extraction and study quality assessment were performed independently by 2 investigators. Disagreements were resolved by a third investigator. Treatment effects and adverse effects were expressed as risk ratio. A random effects model was used when significant heterogeneity existed, otherwise the fixed effects model was performed.
We identified 16 published randomized controlled trials of naproxen in the treatment of migraine. Four trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Naproxen sodium was more effective than placebo in reducing pain intensity and providing pain-free within 2 hours in adults with moderate or severe migraine attacks. The pooled risk ratios were 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-1.77, P < .00001), and 2.22 (95% CI 1.46-3.37, P = .0002), respectively, for headache relief at 2 hours and pain-free at 2 hours. It was also effective in achieving headache relief at 4 hours, relief of migraine-associated symptoms, sustained headache relief, and sustained pain-free responses. There was no significant difference in headache recurrence rate between naproxen sodium and placebo. The risk of any adverse event was greater with naproxen sodium than with placebo (pooled risk ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60, P = .02). The adverse events commonly associated with naproxen sodium were nausea, dizziness, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain.
The available evidence suggests that naproxen sodium is more effective but may cause more adverse events than placebo in the acute treatment of moderate to severe migraine. It is effective in reducing headache intensity, rendering pain-free at 2 hours and improving migraine-associated symptoms. However, its effectiveness relative to other active comparators needs to be better defined by appropriate head-to-head clinical trials.
ISSN: 0017-8748
DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2010.01635.x

Record 66 of 726
Author(s): Atchaneeyasakul, LO (Atchaneeyasakul, La-ongsri); Uiprasertkul, M (Uiprasertkul, Mongkol); Trinavarat, A (Trinavarat, Adisak)
Title: Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Retinoblastoma:An Immunohistochemical Analysis
Source: CURRENT EYE RESEARCH, 35 (3): 242-247 MAR 2010
Abstract: Purpose: Increased level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of cancers. High expression of COX-2 has been demonstrated in several cancer types including retinoblastoma. However, the in vivo study did not confirm the anti-proliferative effect of COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, on a murine transgenic retinoblastoma model. We, therefore, aim to investigate COX-2 expression in paraffin-embedded retinoblastoma specimens in a larger study group.
Methods: We reviewed 55 retinoblastoma specimens obtained during 1995 to 2005. Clinical and histopathological data were recorded. Immunohistochemical evaluation of COX-2 expression was performed using a rabbit monoclonal antibody to human cyclooxygenase-2.
Results: Forty-four of 55 specimens (80%) showed negative immunoreactivity for COX-2 expression. For the 11 specimens (20%, 95% CI = 11.6-32.4%) with positive COX-2, all immunostainings were less than 50% of tumor area. Demographic data and treatment details were available in 53 specimens. Enucleation was performed as a primary treatment in 43 specimens (81%). Other treatments, mainly systemic chemotherapy, were given prior to enucleation in 10 specimens (19%). There was no statistical difference in COX-2 expression between the specimens identified as primary and secondary enucleation (p = 0.66). Regarding the histopathological findings, there were no significant differences between COX-2 negative and COX-2 positive groups.
Conclusions: It appears that COX-2 is not overexpressed in our retinoblastoma specimens, which is different from previous studies. This conflicting data reduces the possibility of introducing Cox-2 inhibitors in the treatment of retinoblastoma.
ISSN: 0271-3683
DOI: 10.3109/02713680903477832

Record 67 of 726
Author(s): Witoonsaridsilp, W (Witoonsaridsilp, Wasu); Panyarachun, B (Panyarachun, Busaba); Sarisuta, N (Sarisuta, Narong); Muller-Goymann, CC (Mueller-Goymann, Christel C.)
Title: Influence of microenvironment and liposomal formulation on secondary structure and bilayer interaction of lysozyme
Abstract: The conformation of peptide and protein drugs in various microenvironments and the interaction with drug carriers such as liposomes are of considerable interest. In this study the influence of microenvironments such as pH, salt concentration, and surface charge on the secondary structure of a model protein, lysozyme, either in solution or entrapped in liposomes with various molar ratios of phosphatidylcholine (PC):cholesterol (Chol) was investigated. It was found that entrapment efficiency was more pronounced in negatively charged liposomes than in non-charged liposomes, which was independent of Chol content and pH of hydration medium. The occurrence of aggregation, decrease in zeta potential, and alteration of P-31 NMR chemical shift of negatively charged lysozyme liposomes compared to blank liposomes suggested that the electrostatic interaction plays a major role in protein-lipid binding. Addition of sodium chloride could impair the neutralizing ability of positively charged lysozyme on negatively charged membrane via chloride counterion binding. Neither lysozyme in various buffer solutions with sodium chloride nor that entrapped in liposomes showed any significant change in their secondary structures. However, significant decrease in alpha-helical content of lysozyme in non-charged liposomes at higher pH and salt concentrations was discovered. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.
ISSN: 0927-7765
DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2009.09.027

Record 68 of 726
Author(s): Lenzini, P (Lenzini, P.); Wadelius, M (Wadelius, M.); Kimmel, S (Kimmel, S.); Anderson, JL (Anderson, J. L.); Jorgensen, AL (Jorgensen, A. L.); Pirmohamed, M (Pirmohamed, M.); Caldwell, MD (Caldwell, M. D.); Limdi, N (Limdi, N.); Burmester, JK (Burmester, J. K.); Dowd, MB (Dowd, M. B.); Angchaisuksiri, P (Angchaisuksiri, P.); Bass, AR (Bass, A. R.); Chen, J (Chen, J.); Eriksson, N (Eriksson, N.); Rane, A (Rane, A.); Lindh, JD (Lindh, J. D.); Carlquist, JF (Carlquist, J. F.); Horne, BD (Horne, B. D.); Grice, G (Grice, G.); Milligan, PE (Milligan, P. E.); Eby, C (Eby, C.); Shin, J (Shin, J.); Kim, H (Kim, H.); Kurnik, D (Kurnik, D.); Stein, CM (Stein, C. M.); McMillin, G (McMillin, G.); Pendleton, RC (Pendleton, R. C.); Berg, RL (Berg, R. L.); Deloukas, P (Deloukas, P.); Gage, BF (Gage, B. F.)
Title: Integration of Genetic, Clinical, and INR Data to Refine Warfarin Dosing
Abstract: Well-characterized genes that affect warfarin metabolism (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9) and sensitivity (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1)) explain one-third of the variability in therapeutic dose before the international normalized ratio (INR) is measured. To determine genotypic relevance after INR becomes available, we derived clinical and pharmacogenetic refinement algorithms on the basis of INR values (on day 4 or 5 of therapy), clinical factors, and genotype. After adjusting for INR, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes remained significant predictors (P < 0.001) of warfarin dose. The clinical algorithm had an R-2 of 48% (median absolute error (MAE): 7.0 mg/week) and the pharmacogenetic algorithm had an R-2 of 63% (MAE: 5.5 mg/week) in the derivation set (N = 969). In independent validation sets, the R2 was 26-43% with the clinical algorithm and 42-58% when genotype was added (P = 0.002). After several days of therapy, a pharmacogenetic algorithm estimates the therapeutic warfarin dose more accurately than one using clinical factors and INR response alone.
ISSN: 0009-9236
DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2010.13

Record 69 of 726
Author(s): Ruchirawat, M (Ruchirawat, M.); Navasumrit, P (Navasumrit, P.); Settachan, D (Settachan, D.)
Title: Exposure to benzene in various susceptible populations: Co-exposures to 1,3-butadiene and PAHs and implications for carcinogenic risk
Source: CHEMICO-BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS, 184 (1-2): 67-76 Sp. Iss. SI MAR 19 2010
Abstract: Exposure to benzene in human populations can occur in various work-related settings in which benzene is used or produced, or from traffic emissions resulting from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel, or from other sources. Two scenarios of benzene exposure were studied in 4 susceptible groups in Thailand. The first scenario is work-related exposures primarily to benzene, with the study subjects consisting of petrochemical laboratory workers and gasoline service station attendants, who are exposed at levels of 78.32 and 360.84 mu g/m(3), respectively. The second scenario is traffic-related exposure and exposure to incense smoke, where co-exposures to other pollutants occurs, with the study groups consisting of school children attending schools in the city center and exposed to traffic emissions, and temple workers exposed to incense smoke. The individual benzene exposure levels were approximately 19.38 mu g/m(3) in city school children and 45.90 mu g/m(3) in temple workers. Co-exposures to 1,3-butadiene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated from the same sources occurred in the second exposure scenario. 8-OHdG, DNA strand breaks and DNA repair capacity were measured as biomarkers of early effects of carcinogenic compound exposure. Petrochemical laboratory workers and gasoline service stations attendants had significantly higher levels of DNA strand breaks and significantly lower DNA repair capacity compared to controls, while gasoline service station attendants also had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG than controls. City school children had significantly higher levels of PAH-DNA adducts, 8-OHdG, and DNA strand breaks and significantly lower levels of DNA repair capacity compared to rural children. Temple workers also had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG and DNA strand breaks and significantly lower levels of DNA repair capacity compared to controls. In all of the study groups, the levels of benzene exposure correlated significantly with 8-OHdG levels, DNA strand breaks, and DNA repair capacity. In school children, PAH levels also correlated significantly with 8-OHdG levels, DNA strand breaks and DNA repair capacity. In temple workers, 1.3-butadiene levels correlated significantly with 8-OHdG and DNA strand breaks, but not with DNA repair capacity, while in the school children they did not correlate significantly with 8-OHdG or DNA strand breaks, and correlated marginally significantly with DNA repair capacity (deletions per metaphase). Multivariate regression analysis identified total PAHs concentrations converted to B[a]P equivalents as the only factor significantly affecting 8-OHdG levels, and total PAHs concentrations converted to B[a]P equivalents, as well as 1,3-butadiene concentrations as the factors significantly affecting DNA repair capacity in the school children. PAHs concentration was identified as the factor most significantly affecting DNA strand breaks in temple workers, followed by benzene concentrations, while DNA repair capacity was also significantly influenced by PAHs concentrations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0009-2797
DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.12.026

Record 70 of 726
Author(s): Siriussawakul, A (Siriussawakul, Arunotai); Mandee, S (Mandee, Sahatsa); Thonsontia, J (Thonsontia, Jathuporn); Vitayaburananont, P (Vitayaburananont, Piyasak); Areewatana, S (Areewatana, Somsak); Laonarinthawoot, J (Laonarinthawoot, Jaruwan)
Title: Obesity, epidural analgesia, and subcostal incision are risk factors for postoperative desaturation
Abstract: This study was designed to determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation after upper abdominal surgery during the first 48 hr on general surgical wards and also to identify risk factors for oxygen desaturation.
This descriptive study was conducted in 206 patients not expected to receive supplemental oxygen postoperatively who were undergoing upper abdominal surgery in a tertiary care university hospital. Desaturation was classified either as constant, i.e., oxygen saturation < 90% for > three minutes or < 85% once or as episodic, i.e., when oxygen saturation is decreased by a parts per thousand yen 5% below baseline for one to two minutes ten times or more during the night period. Possible risk factors were elderly patients (> 70 yr), obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg.m(-2)), smoking, surgical time > 180 min, postoperative pain control methods, intraoperative blood loss, and site of incision.
Of the 206 patients enrolled, 171 were retained for analysis. Desaturation occurred in 65 patients (38%). Forty-eight of these had constant hypoxemia with nadir oxygen saturation values ranging from 71-89%. The remaining 17 patients experienced nocturnal episodic hypoxemia. After multivariate analysis, the three factors that correlated with postoperative desaturation were BMI > 25 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-6.79; P = 0.006), subcostal incision (OR 2.68; 95%CI 1.34-5.38; P = 0.005), and neuraxial opioids (OR 2.44; 95%CI 1.21-4.91; P = 0.013).
Oxygen desaturation is common after upper abdominal surgery, and the risk factors are obesity, a subcostal incision, and neuraxial opioid administration.
ISSN: 0832-610X
DOI: 10.1007/s12630-010-9279-3

Record 71 of 726
Author(s): Sucharitakul, J (Sucharitakul, Jeerus); Wongnate, T (Wongnate, Thanyaporn); Chaiyen, P (Chaiyen, Pimchai)
Title: Kinetic Isotope Effects on the Noncovalent Flavin Mutant Protein of Pyranose 2-Oxidase Reveal Insights into the Flavin Reduction Mechanism
Source: BIOCHEMISTRY, 49 (17): 3753-3765 MAY 4 2010
Abstract: Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) from Trametes multicolor contains a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor covalently linked to the N-3 atom of His167. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of aldopyranoses by molecular oxygen to generate 2-keto-aldoses and H2O2 as products. In this study, the transient kinetics and primary and solvent kinetic isotope effects of the mutant in which His167 has been replaced with Ala (H167A) were investigated, to elucidate the functional role of the 8a-N-3-histidyl FAD linkage and to gain insights into the reaction mechanism of P2O. The results indicate that the covalent linkage is mainly important for a reductive half-reaction in which the FAD cofactor is reduced by D-glucose, while it is not important for an oxidative half-reaction in which oxygen reacts with the reduced FAD to generate H2O2. D-Glucose binds to H167A via multiple binding modes before the formation of the active Michaelis complex, and the rate constant of Flavin reduction decreases similar to 22-fold compared to that of the wild-type enzyme. The reduction of H167A using D-glucose isotopes (2-d-D-glucose, 3-d-D-glucose, and 1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d(7)-D-glucose) as substrates indicates that the primary isotope effect results only from substitution at the C2 position, implying that H167A catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose regiospecifically at this position. No solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected during the reductive half-reaction of the wild-type or H167A enzyme, implying that the deprotonation of the D-glucose C2-OH group may occur readily upon the binding to P2O and is not synchronized with the cleavage of the D-glucose C2-H bond. The mutation has no drastic effect on the oxidative half-reaction of P2O, as H167A is very similar to the wild-type enzyme with respect to the kinetic constants and the formation of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. Kinetic mechanisms for both half-reactions of H167A were proposed on the basis of transient kinetic data and were verified by kinetic simulations and steady-state kinetic parameters.
ISSN: 0006-2960
DOI: 10.1021/bi100187b

Record 72 of 726
Author(s): Kulkeaw, K (Kulkeaw, Kasem); Ishitani, T (Ishitani, Tohru); Kanemaru, T (Kanemaru, Takaaki); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat); Sugiyama, D (Sugiyama, Daisuke)
Title: Cold exposure down-regulates zebrafish hematopoiesis
Abstract: Erythropoiesis is regulated such that a sufficient number of mature erythrocytes is produced. Downregulation of erythropoiesis causes various types of anemia. Although some anemia-related genes have been identified, there are several types of anemic disease for which the molecular mechanisms are yet unclear, suggesting that unidentified genes in addition to the classical cytokine pathways play important roles in anemia. To address this issue, a new animal model for anemia is required. We established a reversible anemic model in zebrafish by keeping fish at 17 degrees C, a low water temperature. In zebrafish kidney marrow, expression of several genes encoding hematopoietic transcription factors (Runx1, scl, c-myb and GATA-2) and particularly erythropoiesis-related factors (klfd, hbaa1, ba1, GATA-1, EPO, and EPOr) was down-regulated, whereas myelopoiesis-related factors (csf1a and csf3) was up-regulated in low temperature conditions. We propose that this zebrafish model is useful to identify novel genes for hematopoiesis, particularly erythropoiesis. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0006-291X
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.047

Record 73 of 726
Author(s): Kozono, S (Kozono, Sayaka); Matsuyama, T (Matsuyama, Takashi); Biwasa, KK (Biwasa, Kamal Krishna); Kawahara, K (Kawahara, Ko-ichi); Nakajima, Y (Nakajima, Yumiko); Yoshimoto, T (Yoshimoto, Takehiko); Yonamine, Y (Yonamine, Yutaka); Kadomatsu, H (Kadomatsu, Hideshi); Tancharoen, S (Tancharoen, Salunya); Hashiguchi, T (Hashiguchi, Teruto); Noguchi, K (Noguchi, Kazuyuki); Maruyama, I (Maruyama, Ikuro)
Title: Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing
Abstract: Endocannabinoids including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are important lipid mediators for immunosuppressive effects and for appropriate homeostasis via their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid (CB) receptors in mammalian organs and tissues, and may be involved in wound healing in some organs. The physiological roles of endocannabinoids in periodontal healing remain unknown. We observed upregulation of the expression of CB1/CB2 receptors localized on fibroblasts and macrophage-like cells in granulation tissue during wound healing in a wound-healing model in rats, as well as an increase in AEA levels in gingival crevicular fluid after periodontal surgery in human patients with periodontitis. In-vitro, the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by AEA was significantly attenuated by AM251 and AM630, which are selective antagonists of CB1 and CB2, respectively. CP55940 (CB1/CB2 agonist) induced phosphorylation of the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and Akt in HGFs. Wound closure by CP55940 in an in-vitro scratch assay was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of MAP kinase kinase (MEK), p38MAPK, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). These findings suggest that endocannabinoid system may have an important role in periodontal healing. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0006-291X
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.03.080

Record 74 of 726
Author(s): Sinsereekul, N (Sinsereekul, Nitat); Wangkam, T (Wangkam, Thidarat); Thamchaipenet, A (Thamchaipenet, Arinthip); Srikhirin, T (Srikhirin, Toemsak); Eurwilaichitr, L (Eurwilaichitr, Lily); Champreda, V (Champreda, Verawat)
Title: Recombinant expression of BTA hydrolase in Streptomyces rimosus and catalytic analysis on polyesters by surface plasmon resonance
Abstract: A recombinant polyester-degrading hydrolase from Thermobifida sp. BCC23166 targeting on aliphatic-aromatic copolyester (rTfH) was produced in Streptomyces rimosus R7. rTfH was expressed by induction with thiostrepton as a C-terminal His(6) fusion from the native gene sequence under the control of tipA promoter and purified from the culture supernatant to high homogeneity by a single step affinity purification on Ni-Sepharose matrix. The enzyme worked optimally at 50-55A degrees C and showed esterase activity on C3-C16 p-nitrophenyl alkanoates with a specific activity of 76.5 U/mg on p-nitrophenyl palmitate. Study of rTfH catalysis on surface degradation of polyester films using surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the degradation rates were in the order of poly-epsilon-caprolactone > Ecoflex(A (R)) > polyhydroxybutyrate. Efficient hydrolysis of Ecoflex(A (R)) by rTfH was observed in mild alkaline conditions, with the highest activity at pH 8.0 and ionic strength at 250 mM sodium chloride, with the maximal specific activity of 0.79 mg(-1)min(-1)mg(-1) protein. Under the optimal conditions, rTfH showed a remarkable 110-time higher specific activity on Ecoflex(A (R)) in comparison to a lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, while less difference in degradation efficiency of the two enzymes was observed on the aliphatic polyesters, suggesting greater specificities of rTfH to the aliphatic-aromatic copolyester. This study demonstrated the use of streptomycetes as an alternative expression system for production of the multi-polyester-degrading enzyme of actinomycete origin and provided insights on its catalytic properties on surface degradation contributing to further biotechnological application of this enzyme.
ISSN: 0175-7598
DOI: 10.1007/s00253-010-2465-y

Record 75 of 726
Author(s): Jariyaboon, M (Jariyaboon, M.); Davenport, AJ (Davenport, A. J.); Ambat, R (Ambat, R.); Connolly, BJ (Connolly, B. J.); Williams, SW (Williams, S. W.); Price, DA (Price, D. A.)
Title: Effect of cryogenic cooling on corrosion of friction stir welded AA7010-T7651
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study how cryogenic CO2 cooling during the welding process affects corrosion behaviour of friction stir welding (FSW) AA7010-T7651.
Design/methodology/approach - Friction stir welded AA7010-17651 was produced with a rotation speed of 288 rpm and a travel speed of 58 mm/min. The liquid CO2 was sprayed onto the weld centre line immediately after the toolpiece. The microstructures of welds in different regions were observed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM). The effect on the corrosion susceptibility was investigated using a gel visualisation test and potentiodynamic polarisation measurements using a micro-electrochemical technique.
Findings - The main corrosion region for both FSWs AA7010-T7651 produced with and without cryogenic CO2 cooling is in the HAZ region, which exhibited intergranular attack. Cryogenic cooling does not show any influence on anodic reactivity of the weld region (both nugget and HAZ) compared to uncooled weld metal. However, the width of the reactive HAZ is reduced after cooling, as compared to the uncooled weld. The cooled welds show higher cathodic reactivity in the nugget region than does the nugget region of uncooled welds.
Originality/value - There has been no previous work to investigate the effect of cryogenic CO2 cooling on the corrosion behaviour of FSW AA7010-T7651. The paper relates the microstructures of both uncooled and cooled welds to their anodic and cathodic reactivities using a micro-electrochemical technique.
ISSN: 0003-5599
DOI: 10.1108/00035591011028050

Record 76 of 726
Author(s): Boontanom, P (Boontanom, Parima); Siripattanapipong, S (Siripattanapipong, Suradej); Mungthin, M (Mungthin, Mathirut); Tan-Ariya, P (Tan-ariya, Peerapan); Leelayoova, S (Leelayoova, Saovanee)
Abstract: A modified set of primers was developed to increase the sensitivity of nested PCR amplification of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene to detect and genotype Giardia duodenal's cysts in stool specimens. This modified set of primers had a significantly higher sensitivity (82%) than that of a previously published PCR primer set (53%).
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 77 of 726
Author(s): Riyong, D (Riyong, Doungrat); Waikagul, J (Waikagul, Jitra); Panasoponkul, C (Panasoponkul, Chotechuang); Choochote, W (Choochote, Wej); Ito, A (Ito, Akira); Dekumyoy, P (Dekumyoy, Paron)
Abstract: We used DirofilariA mimitis adult worm antigens to develop an IgG-ELISA, then used this to evaluate 30 serum samples of patients with proven Wuchereria bancrofti infection, 131 samples of patients with other parasitic diseases and 30 serum samples of healthy controls The D mimitis antigen was prepared using two methods Sephacryl S-200 chromatography and iso-electric focusing with a Rotofor cell. This was done to determine the best method for diagnosing W bancroft filariasis. Before fractionation, crude male D. mimitis antigen yielded 100% sensitivity and 60 8% specificity and crude female antigen yielded 80% sensitivity and 52.8% specificity respectively, to detect W bancrofti infection After gel filtration chromatography, the male D mimitis antigen, called MP1, yielded 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity and female D. mimitis antigen, called FmP1, gave 100% sensitivity and 59.6% specificity to detect W bancroft, infection Using iso-electric-focusing, both male and female crude a mimitis antigens (Iso-MF and Iso-FmF, respectively) were separated mechanically into 20 iso-fractions (F1-F20) each. By preliminary screening with ELISA, using pooled positive and negative sera, Iso-MF10, 75, and Iso-FmF14, pH 7.6, were selected. Iso-MF10 gave 100% sensitivity and 96 9% specificity, and Iso-FmE14 gave 100% sensitivity and 64% specificity. In the study Og4C3-ELISA, for the detection of circulating filarial antigen, was also used to analyze these serum samples, it gave 87.6% sensitivity and 99.4% specificity to detect W bancrofti infection. Male D immitis antigens, MP1 and Iso-MF10, gave high sensitivity and specificity and appear to be the best choices for use in an ELISA to diagnose bancroftian
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 78 of 726
Author(s): Changbunjong, T (Changbunjong, Tanasak); Wongwit, W (Wongwit, Waranya); Leemingsawat, S (Leemingsawat, Somjai); Tongtokit, Y (Tongtokit, Yuwadee); Deesm, V (Deesm, Vanida)
Abstract: The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi glabrata and exustus were reported at 163 85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236 80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1,288.91 and 1,066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 79 of 726
Author(s): Chuansumrit, A (Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan); Puripokai, C (Puripokai, Chartchai); Butthep, P (Butthep, Punnee); Wongtiraporn, W (Wongtiraporn, Wanida); Sasanakul, W (Sasanakul, Werasak); Tangnararatchakit, K (Tangnararatchakit, Kanchana); Chunhakan, S (Chunhakan, Sirichan); Yoksan, S (Yoksan, Sutee)
Abstract: The clinical manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) consist of three successive stages febrile, toxic and convalescent. The toxic stage is the critical period, which may manifest as circulatory disturbance or even profound shock in some patients. We attempted to determine predictors for the risk of dengue shock syndrome (DSS) during the febrile stage. One hundred one children with acute febrile illness were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 11 years old The diagnosis included dengue fever (DF) 21 cases, DHF grade I 30 cases, DHF grade II 33 cases, DHF grades III and IV 10 cases; children with other febrile illnesses (OFI) 7 cases were used as controls. Complete blood counts, coagulation tests, von Willebrand factor antigens (VWF:Ag) and ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) were determined daily during hospitalization and 2-4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. The results revealed any one of the following abnormal laboratory findings during the febrile stage served as a predictor for risk of DSS. increase in hematocrit >25%, a platelet count <40,000/mu l, an activated partial thromboplasin time >44 seconds, a prothrombin time >14 seconds, a thrombin time >16 seconds or a VWF:Ag or VWF.Rcof >210%. The relative risk ranged from 4 8 to 10.9. Simple laboratory investigations with complete blood count, coagulation test or the more sophisticated von Willebrand factor, are helpful in predicting the risk for DSS during the febrile stage.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 80 of 726
Author(s): Kondo, S (Kondo, Sumalee); Trakoolsomboon, S (Trakoolsomboon, Suwanna); Smittipat, N (Smittipat, Nat); Juthayothin, T (Juthayothin, Tada); Palittapongarnpim, P (Palittapongarnpim, Prasit)
Abstract: Forty isolates of V cholorae O1, O139 and non-O1/non-O139 collected from outbreaks in Songkhla and Phuket Provinces of southern Thailand during 1999-2001 and sporadic cases from different regions of Thailand during 1993-2002 were characterized using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) Digestion of chromosomal DNA of the V cholerae isolates with restriction endonuclease Non, followed by PFGE, generated 10 distinct restriction endonuclease analysis patterns consisting of 8 to 13 bands, ranging in size from 78 to 394 kb. PFGE patterns of O1 Inaba strains from the outbreak in Songkhla were identical (P1) except one isolate (P3) The O1 Inaba outbreak strains from Phuket in the same period belonged to P2 pattern, whereas the O1 Ogawa strain from the outbreak in Phuket isolated in 1999 was of P7 pattern These patterns of O1 Inaba and Ogawa strains were slightly different suggesting that the isolates were epidemiologically related and therefore the outbreaks were likely due to the same V cholerae clone. Isolates of V. cholerae O1 Inaba from sporadic cases in the neighboring area (eg, Pattani Province) in a similar period of time of the outbreak in Songkhla Province had very similar patterns, with only one single band different from those of the outbreak isolates. This indicates that the Inaba strains isolated from Songkhla Province during the 2001 cholera outbreak belonging to P1 pattern had not spread to other regions in 2001 and 2002. On the otherhand, the sporadic isolates collected from other regions of Thailand were quite distinct from the outbreak isolates in Songkhla Province, especially those from Chaiyaphum and Chaing Mai Provinces, which belonged to P5 and P6 pattern, respectively Isolates of V cholerae O139 and non-O1/non-O139 gave different patterns from that of V cholerae O1. This study shows that the PFGE technique is markedly advantageous in distinguishing strains of V cholerae isolates leading to insightful detailed charateristics of these isolates in Thailand
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 81 of 726
Author(s): Upadhyay, BP (Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad); Utrarachkij, F (Utrarachkij, Fuangfa); Thongshoob, J (Thongshoob, Jarinee); Mahakunkijcharoen, Y (Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee); Wongchinda, N (Wongchinda, Niracha); Suthienkul, O (Suthienkul, Orasa); Khusmith, S (Khusmith, Srisin)
Abstract: Contamination of seafood with salmonellae is a major public health concern. Detection of Salmonella by standard culture methods is time consuming. In this study, an enrichment culture step prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect 284 bp fragment of Salmonella mvA in comparison with the conventional culture method in 100 shrimp samples collected from four different shrimp farms and fresh food markets around Bangkok Samples were pre-enriched in non-selective lactose broth (LB) and selective tetrathionate broth (TTB). PCR detection limit was 10 pg and 10(4) cfu/ml of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. PCR assay detected 19 different Salmonella serovars belonging to 8 serogroups (B, C1, C2-C3, D1, E1, E4 and K) commonly found in clinical and environmental samples in Thailand. The detection rate of PCR following TTB enrichment (24%) was higher than conventional culture method (19%). PCR following TTB, but not in LB enrichment allowed salmonella detection with 84% sensitivity, 90% specificity and 89% accuracy. Shrimp samples collected from fresh food markets had higher levels of contaminated salmonellae than those from shrimp farms. The results indicated that incorporation of an enrichment step prior to PCR has the potential to be applied for detection of naturally contaminated salmonellae in food, environment and clinical samples.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 82 of 726
Author(s): Soontrapa, P (Soontrapa, Pannathat); Larbcharoensub, N (Larbcharoensub, Noppadol); Luxameechanporn, T (Luxameechanporn, Thongchai); Cheewaruangroj, W (Cheewaruangroj, Wichit); Prakunhungsit, S (Prakunhungsit, Supawadee); Sathapatayavong, B (Sathapatayavong, Boonmee); Chongtrakool, P (Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn); Leopairut, J (Leopairut, Juvady)
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic findings of invasive and non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and to compare the features of the two diseases. The medical records of patients with invasive and non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis at Ramathibodi Hospital between July 1999 and June 2009 were analyzed. The criterion for the diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis was the evidence of fungal elements from histopathologic section on sinonasal specimens The age, gender, clinical manifestations, duration of symptoms, associated diseases, laboratory data, results of mycolic culture and treatment outcomes were analyzed. The relationship between fungal rhinosinusitis and patient characteristics as well as clinical presentations were assessed The fungus-attributable mortality rate was determined The study included 43 cases of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and 68 cases of non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis There were 44 male, and 67 female patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 6 years (range. 5 to 86 years). A total of 70 (63.1%) were attributed to aspergillosis, 8 (7.2%) to candidiasis, 6 (5.4%) to zygomycosis, 4 (3 6%) to phaeohyphomycosis, 1 (0.9%) to pseudallescheriasis, 1 (0 9%) to entomophthoromycosis and 21 (18 9%) to nonspecific fungi Cultures from sinonasal tissues were positive for fungus in 37 of 87 cases (42.5%). The clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis included nasal stuffiness (27 9%), nasal discharge (27 9%), facial pain (27.9%), fever (24 3%) and headache (19.8%) One-fifth of cases had an underlying hematologic malignancy Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis was significantly associated with hematologic malignancy and neutropenia Fungus-attributable mortality rate was 44 2% in invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Early antifungal therapy and surgical drainage were associated with a survival advantage.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 83 of 726
Author(s): Thani, W (Thani, Wasina); Vallisuta, O (Vallisuta, Omboon); Siripong, P (Siripong, Pongpan); Ruangwises, N (Ruangwises, Nongluck)
Abstract: In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), He La (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and IIepG(2) (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and He La cells with 1050 values of 21.67 and 68.50 mu g/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39 00 mu g/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 mu g/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0 20-0.35 mg/ml; It can be concluded the leaves of M citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 84 of 726
Author(s): Techasaensiri, C (Techasaensiri, Chonnamet); Messina, AF (Messina, Allison F.); Katz, K (Katz, Kathy); Ahmad, N (Ahmad, Naveed); Huang, R (Huang, Rong); McCracken, GH (McCracken, George H., Jr.)
Title: Epidemiology and Evolution of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Multidrug Resistant Serotypes of 19A in the 8 Years After Implementation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Immunization in Dallas, Texas
Abstract: Background: The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has significantly reduced vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. An increasing percentage of IPD cases are now caused by nonvaccine serotypes. The purpose of our observational study was to define the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in Dallas, TX children for 8 years after implementation of PCV7 immunization.
Methods: Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from normally sterile sites were collected at Children's Medical Center of Dallas from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008. Incidence of IPD was calculated using inpatient and emergency center admissions to Children's Medical Center of Dallas as the denominator. Isolates were serotyped and penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibilities were determined. Serotype 19A isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing.
Results: Compared with the prevaccine period of 1999-2000, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of IPD from 2002 to 2008 ( P < 0.05), although a significant increase in IPD incidence was observed from 2006 to 2008 (P = 0.038). The number of IPD cases caused by serotype 19A increased from 1999 to 2008 (P < 0.001). There were significant increases in penicillin and cefotaxime nonsusceptibile 19A isolates during this 10-year period (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). The most common sequence type (ST) of the 19A isolates was ST-199 (42.7%). Clonal complex (cc-156) and cc-320 emerged in the period of 2005-2008 as penicillin and cefotaxime resistant 19A strains.
Conclusions: In Dallas, PCV7 immunization reduced significantly the incidence of IPD caused by vaccine-type strains. A significant increase in IPD caused by serotype 19A was observed. The penicillin and cefotaxime nonsusceptible STs, not previously identified in Dallas, have recently become an important cause of IPD.
ISSN: 0891-3668
DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181c2a229

Record 85 of 726
Author(s): Rattarasarn, C (Rattarasarn, Chatchalit); Leelawattana, R (Leelawattana, Rattana); Soonthornpun, S (Soonthornpun, Supamai)
Title: Contribution of skeletal muscle mass on sex differences in 2-hour plasma glucose levels after oral glucose load in Thai subjects with normal glucose tolerance
Abstract: Women have higher 2-hour plasma glucose levels after oral glucose challenge than men The smaller skeletal muscle mass in women may contribute to the higher postload glucose levels The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the different amount of skeletal muscle mass between men and women contributed to sex difference in postload plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance Forty-seven Thai subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 23 women and 24 age- and body mass index-matched men, were studied Body fat, abdominal fat, and appendages lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp First-phase insulin secretion and hepatic insulin sensitivity were determined from oral glucose tolerance data beta-Cell function was estimated from the homeostasis model assessment of %B by the homeostasis model assessment 2 model Correlation and linear regression analysis were performed to identify factors contributing to variances of postload 2-hour plasma glucose levels This study showed that women had significantly higher 2-hour plasma glucose levels and smaller skeletal muscle mass than men. Measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were not different between men and women. Male sex (r = -0.360, P = 013) and appendages lean mass (r = -0.411, P = 004) were negatively correlated with 2-hour plasma glucose, whereas log 2-hour insulin (r = 0571, P < 0001), total body fat (r = 0348, P = 016), and log abdominal fat (r = 0298, P = 042) were positively correlated with 2-hour plasma glucose The correlation of 2-hour plasma glucose and sex disappeared after adjustment for appendages lean mass By multivariate linear regression analysis, log 2-hour insulin (beta = 18 9, P < 0001), log 30-minute insulin (beta = -36.3, P = .001), appendages lean mass (beta = -1.0 x 10(-3), P = 018), and hepatic insulin sensitivity index (beta = -17.3, P = -041) explained 54.2% of the variance of 2-hour plasma glucose In conclusion, the higher postload 2-hour plasma glucose levels in women was not sex specific but was in part a result of the smaller skeletal muscle mass The early insulin secretion, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle mass were the significant factors negatively predicting 2-hour postload plasma glucose levels in Thai subjects with normal glucose tolerance (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0026-0495
DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.06.029

Record 86 of 726
Author(s): Mahachoklertwattana, P (Mahachoklertwattana, P.); Suthutvoravut, U (Suthutvoravut, U.); Poomthavorn, P (Poomthavorn, P.); Charoenkiatkul, S (Charoenkiatkul, S.); Udomsubpayakul, U (Udomsubpayakul, U.); Rajatanavin, R (Rajatanavin, R.)
Title: Sexual Maturation in Thai Boys
Abstract: Background: A worldwide secular trend towards earlier onset of puberty in girls has been noted during recent years. However, the data on sexual maturation of boys are relatively scarce and normative data of sexual maturation in Thai boys are still lacking.
Aim: To determine the age of secondary sexual maturation in normal Thai boys.
Methods: Three hundred healthy urban boys aged 9-18 years were recruited during January 1997 to December 1999. Genital and pubic hair maturity staging was determined using the method of Marshall and Tanner. Testicular size was assessed by Prader orchidometer. Probit analysis was used to analyze the onset of puberty (gonadarchc) and pubarche.
Results: Median (range) ages of the onset of puberty and pubarche were 10.8 (9.5-12) and 12.4 (10.9-13.9) years, respectively.
Conclusion: The age of onset of genital development in boys living in Bangkok seems to be slightly earlier than that of boys in other countries. However, the onset of pubic hair development is comparable.
ISSN: 0334-018X

Record 87 of 726
Author(s): Sutherland, CJ (Sutherland, Colin J.); Tanomsing, N (Tanomsing, Naowarat); Nolder, D (Nolder, Debbie); Oguike, M (Oguike, Mary); Jennison, C (Jennison, Charlie); Pukrittayakamee, S (Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon); Dolecek, C (Dolecek, Christiane); Tran, TH (Tran Tinh Hien); do Rosario, VE (do Rosario, Virgilio E.); Arez, AP (Arez, Ana Paula); Pinto, J (Pinto, Joao); Michon, P (Michon, Pascal); Escalante, AA (Escalante, Ananias A.); Nosten, F (Nosten, Francois); Burke, M (Burke, Martina); Lee, R (Lee, Rogan); Blaze, M (Blaze, Marie); Otto, TD (Otto, Thomas Dan); Barnwell, JW (Barnwell, John W.); Pain, A (Pain, Arnab); Williams, J (Williams, John); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); Snounou, G (Snounou, Georges); Lockhart, PJ (Lockhart, Peter J.); Chiodini, PL (Chiodini, Peter L.); Imwong, M (Imwong, Mallika); Polley, SD (Polley, Spencer D.)
Title: Two Nonrecombining Sympatric Forms of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium ovale Occur Globally
Source: JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 201 (10): 1544-1550 MAY 15 2010
Abstract: Background. Malaria in humans is caused by apicomplexan parasites belonging to 5 species of the genus Plasmodium. Infections with Plasmodium ovale are widely distributed but rarely investigated, and the resulting burden of disease is not known. Dimorphism in defined genes has led to P. ovale parasites being divided into classic and variant types. We hypothesized that these dimorphs represent distinct parasite species.
Methods. Multilocus sequence analysis of 6 genetic characters was carried out among 55 isolates from 12 African and 3 Asia-Pacific countries.
Results. Each genetic character displayed complete dimorphism and segregated perfectly between the 2 types. Both types were identified in samples from Ghana, Nigeria, Sao Tome, Sierra Leone, and Uganda and have been described previously in Myanmar. Splitting of the 2 lineages is estimated to have occurred between 1.0 and 3.5 million years ago in hominid hosts.
Conclusions. We propose that P. ovale comprises 2 nonrecombining species that are sympatric in Africa and Asia. We speculate on possible scenarios that could have led to this speciation. Furthermore, the relatively high frequency of imported cases of symptomatic P. ovale infection in the United Kingdom suggests that the morbidity caused by ovale malaria has been underestimated.
ISSN: 0022-1899
DOI: 10.1086/652240

Record 88 of 726
Author(s): Kiertiburanakul, S (Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin); Wiboonchutikul, S (Wiboonchutikul, Surasak); Sukasem, C (Sukasem, Chonlaphat); Chantratita, W (Chantratita, Wasun); Sungkanuparph, S (Sungkanuparph, Somnuek)
Title: Using of nevirapine is associated with intermediate and reduced response to etravirine among HIV-infected patients who experienced virologic failure in a resource-limited setting
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY, 47 (4): 330-334 APR 2010
Abstract: Background: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens have been extensively used for treatment of HIV infection in resource-limited settings. Treatment options after failing an initial regimen are limited because of cross-resistance of NNRTIs.
Objective: To determine the factors associated with reduced response to etravirine among patients with virological failure.
Study design: A retrospective study was conducted. We stratified patients into two groups by the total weighted scores of etravirine-resistance-associated mutations (ETV-RAMs), highest response (score 0-2, N= 123) and intermediate and reduced response (score = 2.5, N= 61). Factors associated with a score of = 2.5 were evaluated.
Results: There were 184 patients with mean (SD) age of 42 (9) years old and 60% were males. Of all, 68% used NNRTI in the failing regimen and 51% used stavudine/lamivudine as a backbone. Common ETV-RAMs included Y181C (27%), G190A (17%), and K101E (10%). Higher proportion of K101E, K101P, Y181C, G190S, and M230L were found in patients with a score of = 2.5 (p < 0.05, all). By univariate logistic regression, using protease inhibitor (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.67), nevirapine (OR 10.56, 95% CI 4.04-27.74), and efavirenz (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.01-2.51) in the current regimen were associated with a score of = 2.5. By multiple logistic regression, only using nevirapine was associated with a score of = 2.5 (OR 7.61, 95% CI 2.40-24.06).
Conclusions: Using nevirapine in the failing regimen was associated with intermediate and reduced response to ETV. The recommendation of using nevirapine as a preferred NNRTI should be re-considered in resource-limited settings where efavirenz is accessible. (C) 2010 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1386-6532
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2010.01.018

Record 89 of 726
Author(s): Nillawong, M (Nillawong, Manuchet); Sombatsompop, N (Sombatsompop, Narongrit); Sirisinha, C (Sirisinha, Chakrit)
Title: Viscoelastic Properties of Nitrile Rubber Filled with Lignite Fly Ash
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, 116 (6): 3497-3502 JUN 15 2010
Abstract: Nitrile rubber (NBR) compounds containing various loadings of fly ash (FA) were prepared, and their viscoelastic properties and reinforcement mechanism were investigated and compared with those of natural rubber (NR) compounds reported previously. The results obtained exhibit an increase in storage modulus (G') with increasing FA particularly at high FA loading. By contrast, the broadness of linear viscoelastic (LVE) region is found to decrease. With the use of Guth-Cold equation, the positive deviation of experimental values of relative modulus outward the theoretical values is observed at low strain of deformation. However, at high deformation strain, the negative deviation is found. The results imply that the presence of pseudo-network (as formed via FA-FA and FA-NBR interactions) and the ball bearing effect provided by FA having spherical shape are responsible for the reinforcement in FA filled NBR compounds. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 3497-3502, 2010
ISSN: 0021-8995
DOI: 10.1002/app.31879

Record 90 of 726
Author(s): Meng, X (Meng, X.); Tancharoen, S (Tancharoen, S.); Kawahara, KI (Kawahara, K-I.); Nawa, Y (Nawa, Y.); Taniguchi, S (Taniguchi, S.); Hashiguchi, T (Hashiguchi, T.); Maruyama, I (Maruyama, I.)
Abstract: 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) decreases in diabetic patients and is used as a marker of glycemic control. Type 2 diabetic patients are susceptibile to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which stimulate macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6. This study examines the effects of 1,5-AG on lung inflammation induced by LPS and consequent systemic inflammation to determine whether the decrease of 1,5-AG concentration induces susceptibility to LPS. Before the challenge with LPS (1 mg/kg in vivo and 500 ng/ml in vitro), we pretreated db/db mice and RAW264.7 cells with 1,5-AG at 38.5 mg/kg and 500 mu g/ml, respectively. The levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and IL-1 beta in the serum and in the cell supernatants were measured. We also measured macrophage recruitment and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pulmonary tissues. We found that 1,5-AG attenuated serum cytokine release and protected db/db mice from LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. In addition, 1,5-AG suppressed cytokine release and iNOS expression by suppressing Akt/NF-kappa B activity in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that 1,5-AG may be a mediator in, as well as marker for diabetes, and 1,5-AG intake may confer tolerance to LPS in patients with type 2 diabetes.
ISSN: 0394-6320

Record 91 of 726
Author(s): Netikul, T (Netikul, Thidarat); Leelaporn, A (Leelaporn, Amornrut); Leelarasmee, A (Leelarasmee, Amorn); Kiratisin, P (Kiratisin, Pattarachai)
Title: In vitro activities of fosfomycin and carbapenem combinations against carbapenem non-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae
ISSN: 0924-8579
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.01.021

Record 92 of 726
Author(s): Kiriwat, O (Kiriwat, Orawan); Petyim, S (Petyim, Somsin)
Title: The effects of transdermal contraception on lipid profiles, carbohydrate metabolism and coagulogram in Thai women
Source: GYNECOLOGICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, 26 (5): 361-365 MAY 2010
Abstract: Methods. Fifty healthy Thai women were assigned to use contraceptive patches. Blood chemistries test including liver function test, lipid profiles and coagulogram were evaluated at baseline, cycles 3 and 6.
Results. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL were significantly increased, whereas LDL was slightly decreased. The ratio of total cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL significantly decreased when applying the patch. After discontinued use of contraceptive patch, the women whose blood tests present hypercholesterol during patch use showed a continuous decrease in blood results of total cholesterol level over 3 months. Moreover, mean fasting glucose, SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphate were decreased. No woman suffering from VTE in this study.
Conclusions. The use of contraceptive patch does not exert a negative effect on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, liver function test and blood coagulogram. However, further studies are required to elucidate the effect of the contraceptive on the patch user in long term.
ISSN: 0951-3590
DOI: 10.3109/09513590903511455

Record 93 of 726
Author(s): Wongwattanasathien, O (Wongwattanasathien, O.); Kangsadalampai, K (Kangsadalampai, K.); Tongyonk, L (Tongyonk, L.)
Title: Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand
Source: FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, 48 (4): 1045-1051 APR 2010
Abstract: The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Am., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Mem& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0278-6915
DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.01.018

Record 94 of 726
Author(s): Wongdee, K (Wongdee, Kannikar); Riengrojpitak, S (Riengrojpitak, Suda); Krishnamra, N (Krishnamra, Nateetip); Charoenphandhu, N (Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol)
Title: Claudin expression in the bone-lining cells of female rats exposed to long-standing acidemia
Abstract: Besides enhancing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) induces mineral efflux across the epithelial-like bone membrane formed by bone-lining cells (inactive osteoblasts), possibly via the paracellular pathway. However, there was a compensatory mechanism that restricted bone loss in the late phase of CMA, and changes in the expression of claudins, which are tight junction proteins known to regulate epithelial barrier function, were therefore anticipated in bone-lining cells. Herein, primary rat osteoblasts were found to express several transcripts of claudins, i.e., claudin-5, -11, -14, -15 and -16. Their protein expressions in bone-lining cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in decalcified tibial sections. After exposure to CMA induced by oral administration of 1.5% NH4Cl for 21 days, expression of claudin-14, which normally seals the paracellular space and restricts ion movement, was increased, whereas that of claudin-15 and -16 which form pores for ion transport were decreased. Expressions of claudin-5 and -11 were not changed by CMA. In conclusion, the bone-lining cells of rats exposed to CMA for 21 days upregulated an ion-restrictive claudin (i.e., claudin-14), while downregulating ion-permeable claudins (i.e., claudin-15 and -16). These cellular responses slight be parts of a compensatory mechanism accounting for deceleration of bone loss in late CMA. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0014-4800
DOI: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2009.12.005

Record 95 of 726
Author(s): Inphonlek, S (Inphonlek, Supharat); Pimpha, N (Pimpha, Nuttaporn); Sunintaboon, P (Sunintaboon, Panya)
Title: Synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) core/chitosan-mixed-polyethyleneimine shell nanoparticles and their antibacterial property
Abstract: The core-shell nanoparticles possessing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core coated with chitosan (CS), polyethyleneimine (PEI), and chitosan-mixed-polyethyleneimine (CS/PEI) shells were synthesized in this work. The emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization triggered by a redox initiating system from t-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) and amine groups on CS and/or PEI was used as a synthetic method. In the CS/PEI systems, the amount of CS was kept constant (0.5 g), while the amount of PEI was varied from 0.1 to 0.5 g. The surface and physico-chemical properties of prepared nanoparticles were then examined. FTIR spectra indicated the presence of grafted PMMA on CS and/or PEI, and the weight fraction of incorporated PEI in the CS/PEI nanoparticles. All nanoparticles were spherical in shape with uniform size distribution illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The introduction of PEI to CS nanoparticles yielded the higher monomer conversion, grafting efficiency, and grafting percentage compared with the CS nanoparticles. The size of CS/PEI nanoparticles was smaller than the original CS and PEI nanoparticles, and tended to decrease with increasing amount of PEI introduced. The introduction of PEI also brought the higher colloidal stability to the nanoparticles as indicated by zeta-potential measurement and isoelectric point analysis. The nanoparticles exhibited a promising antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The nanoparticle-bacteria interaction was studied via SEM. The results suggested that they would be useful as effective antibacterial agents. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0927-7765
DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2010.01.029

Record 96 of 726
Author(s): Katchamart, W (Katchamart, Wanruchada); Trudeau, J (Trudeau, Judith); Phumethum, V (Phumethum, Veerapong); Bombardier, C (Bombardier, Claire)
Title: Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis
Abstract: Background
Methotrexate (MTX) is among the most effective disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with less toxicity and better tolerability.
To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of MTX monotherapy compared to MTX combination with non-biologic DMARDs in adult with RA.
Search strategy
Trials were identified in MEDLINE (1950 to 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009), the Cochrane Controlled trials Registry (CENTRAL) (up to 2009), the American and European scientific meeting abstracts 2005-9, the reference lists of all relevant studies, letters, and review articles.
Selection criteria
Randomized controlled trials comparing MTX monotherapy versus MTX combined with other non-biologic DMARDs of at least 12 weeks of trial duration in adult RA patients.
Data collection and analysis
Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of relevant studies. The efficacy analysis was stratified into 3 groups based on previous DMARDs use: DMARD naive, MTX inadequate response, and non-MTX DMARDs inadequate response. The toxicity analysis was stratified by DMARD combination and pooled across trials for each combination. Our prespecified primary analysis was based on total withdrawal rates for efficacy or toxicity.
Main results
A total of 19 trials (2,025 patients) from 6,938 citations were grouped by the type of patients randomised. Trials in DMARD naive patients showed no significant advantage of the MTX combination versus monotherapy; withdrawals for lack of efficacy or toxicity were similar in both groups (risk ratio (RR) 1.16, 95% CI. 0.70 to 1.93, absolute risk difference(ARD) 5%, 95% CI-3% to 13%). Trials in MTX or non-MTX DMARDs inadequate responder patients also showed no difference in withdrawal rates between the MTX combo versus mono groups with RR 0.86 95% CI 0.49 to1.51, ARD -2 %, 95% CI-13 % to 8 % and RR 0.75 95% CI 0.41 to 1.35, ARD 10%, 95% CI -31% to 11%, respectively. Significant reductions of pain and improvement in physical function (measured by Health Assessment Questionnaire or HAQ) were found in the MTX combination group, but only in MTX-inadequate responders (absolute risk difference -9.72%, 95% CI -14.7% to -4.75% for pain and mean difference (MD) -0.28, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.21 (0-3) for HAQ).
Authors' conclusions
When the balance of efficacy and toxicity is taken into account, the moderate level of evidence from our systematic review showed no statistically significant advantage of the MTX combination versus monotherapy. Trials are needed that compare currently used MTX doses and combination therapies.
ISSN: 1469-493X
Article Number: CD008495
DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008495

Record 97 of 726
Author(s): Wongkongkatep, J (Wongkongkatep, Jirarut); Ladadat, R (Ladadat, Runchuan); Lappermpunsap, W (Lappermpunsap, Woraphoj); Wongkongkatep, P (Wongkongkatep, Pravit); Phinyocheep, P (Phinyocheep, Pranee); Ojida, A (Ojida, Akio); Hamachi, T (Hamachi, Tam)
Title: Thermoresponsive Fluorescent Sensor Based on Core/Shell Nanocomposite Composed of Gold Nanoparticles and Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)
Source: CHEMISTRY LETTERS, 39 (3): 184-185 MAR 5 2010
Abstract: We developed a new thermometric fluorescent sensor based on core/shell nanocomposite composed of gold nanoparticles and thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), which shows a reversible fluorescence change in response to a temperature change.
ISSN: 0366-7022
DOI: 10.1246/cl.2010.184

Record 98 of 726
Author(s): Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, C (Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm); Tantimongcolwat, T (Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut); Galla, HJ (Galla, Hans-Joachim); Prachayasittikul, V (Prachayasittikul, Virapong)
Title: Fluorescent Protein-Based Optical Biosensor for Copper Ion Quantitation
Source: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, 134 (3): 352-363 JUN 2010
Abstract: In the present study, spectroscopic determinations of copper ions using chimeric metal-binding green fluorescent protein (His6GFP) as an active indicator have been explored. Supplementation of copper ions to the GFP solution led to a remarkable decrease of fluorescent intensity corresponding to metal concentrations. For circumstances, rapid declining of fluorescence up to 60% was detected in the presence of 500 mu M copper. This is in contrast to those observed in the case of zinc and calcium ions, in which approximately 10-20% of fluorescence was affected. Recovery of its original fluorescence up to 80% was mediated by the addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. More importantly, in the presence of metal ions, the emission wavelength maximum remains unchanged while reduction of the optical density of the absorption spectrum has been observed. This indicates that the chromophore's ground state was possibly affected by the static quenching process. Results from circular dichroism measurements revealed that the overall patterns of circular dichroism spectra after exposure to copper ions were not significantly different from that of the control, where the majority of sharp positive band around 195-196 nm in combination with a broad negative deflection around 215-216 nm was obtained. Taken together, it can be presumed that copper ions exerted their static quenching on the fluorescence rather than structural or conformational alteration. However, notification has to be made that some peptide rearrangements may also occur in the presence of metal ions. Further studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the His6GFP as a sensing unit for copper ions. The His6GFP was encapsulated in Sol-gel and immobilized onto the optical fiber connected with a fluorescence detecting device. The Sol-gel was doped into the metal solution where the quenching of fluorescence could be monitored in real time. The sensing unit provided a high sensitivity of detection in the range of 0.5 mu M to 50 mM with high selectivity for copper ions. All these findings open up a high potential to apply the fluorescent protein-based bioanalytical tool for copper determination in the future.
ISSN: 0163-4984
DOI: 10.1007/s12011-009-8476-9

Record 99 of 726
Author(s): Jittawuttipoka, T (Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn); Sallabhan, R (Sallabhan, Ratiboot); Vattanaviboon, P (Vattanaviboon, Paiboon); Fuangthong, M (Fuangthong, Mayuree); Mongkolsuk, S (Mongkolsuk, Skorn)
Title: Mutations of ferric uptake regulator (fur) impair iron homeostasis, growth, oxidative stress survival, and virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris
Source: ARCHIVES OF MICROBIOLOGY, 192 (5): 331-339 MAY 2010
Abstract: Iron is essential in numerous cellular functions. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron's toxic effects. Here, we characterize the roles of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) fur, which encodes an iron sensor and a transcriptional regulator that acts in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and virulence. Herein, we isolated spontaneous Xcc fur mutants that had high intracellular iron concentrations due to constitutively high siderophore levels and increased expression of iron transport genes. These mutants also had reduced aerobic plating efficiency and resistance to peroxide killing. Moreover, one fur mutant was attenuated on a host plant, thus indicating that fur has important roles in the virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris.
ISSN: 0302-8933
DOI: 10.1007/s00203-010-0558-8

Record 100 of 726
Author(s): Supasai, T (Supasai, T.); Dangtip, S (Dangtip, S.); Learngarunsri, P (Learngarunsri, P.); Boonyopakorn, N (Boonyopakorn, N.); Wisitsoraat, A (Wisitsoraat, A.); Hodak, SK (Hodak, Satreerat K.)
Title: Influence of temperature annealing on optical properties of SrTiO3/BaTiO3 multilayered films on indium tin oxide
Source: APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 256 (14): 4462-4467 MAY 1 2010
Abstract: We have prepared SrTiO3/BaTiO3 thin films with multilayered structures deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass by a sol-gel deposition and heating at 300-650 degrees C. The optical properties were obtained by UV-vis spectroscopy. The films show a high transmittance (approximately 85%) in the visible region. The optical band gap of the films is tunable in the 3.64-4.19 eV range by varying the annealing temperature. An abrupt decrease towards the bulk band gap value is observed at annealing temperatures above 600 degrees C. The multilayered film annealed at 650 degrees C exhibited the maximum refractive index of 2.09-1.91 in the 450-750 nm wavelength range. The XRD and AFM results indicate that the films annealed above 600 degrees C are substantially more crystalline than the films prepared at lower temperatures which were used to change their optical band gap and complex refractive index to an extent that depended on the annealing temperature. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0169-4332
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.01.072

Record 101 of 726
Author(s): Leimanis, ML (Leimanis, M. L.); Jaidee, A (Jaidee, A.); Sriprawat, K (Sriprawat, K.); Kaewpongsri, S (Kaewpongsri, S.); Suwanarusk, R (Suwanarusk, R.); Barends, M (Barends, M.); Phyo, AP (Phyo, A. P.); Russell, B (Russell, B.); Renia, L (Renia, L.); Nosten, F (Nosten, F.)
Title: Plasmodium vivax Susceptibility to Ferroquine
Abstract: The novel organometallic chloroquine analog ferroquine (SSR 97193) is effective against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The ex vivo efficacy of ferroquine against Plasmodium vivax isolates was tested. Ferroquine has a potent ex vivo effect on P. vivax schizont maturation (median 50% inhibitory concentration, 15 nM; n = 42). No significant cross-sensitivity between ferroquine and other antimalarials was detected. This drug may be a suitable replacement for chloroquine in the treatment of drug-resistant P. vivax malaria.
ISSN: 0066-4804
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01572-09

Record 102 of 726
Author(s): Wongprasit, P (Wongprasit, Pawinee); Manosuthi, W (Manosuthi, Weerawat); Kiertiburanakul, S (Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin); Sungkanuparph, S (Sungkanuparph, Somnuek)
Title: Hepatitis B Virus Drug Resistance in HIV-1-Infected Patients Taking Lamivudine-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy
Source: AIDS PATIENT CARE AND STDS, 24 (4): 205-209 APR 2010
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-1-infected patients receiving lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus drug resistance (HBV-DR). HBV DNA and HBV genotypic resistance test were performed. Patients were categorized into two groups: with and without HBV-DR. There were 84 patients with a mean age (standard deviation [SD]) of 42.2 (10.2) years and 77% were males. Median (range) duration of ART and lamivudine use was 46 (3-177) and 40 (3-140) months, respectively. Median (range) CD4 cell count was 352 (49-790) cells/mm(3). Of all, 19 (23%) had HBV-DR with a median (range) HBV DNA of 2.56 x 10(7) (2.54 x 10(3)-11 x 10(7)) IU/mL. In univariate analysis, there were no differences in age, gender, ART regimen, liver function test, anti-HBc antibody, anti-HCV antibody between the two groups. Patients with HBV-DR had a higher proportion of positive HBeAg (68.4% versus 3.8%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, positive HBeAg (odds ratio [OR) 16.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.31-83.60] and duration of lamivudine use [per 6-month increment, OR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.36] were significant risk factors for HBV-DR. All 19 patients with HBV-DR had lamivudine resistance with the mutations as follows: M204V/I (95%), L180M/A181T (95%), L80V/I (47%), V173L (32%), and N236T (21%). Of these, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 0% of patients had HBV-DR to telbivudine, entecavir, adefovir, and tenofovir, respectively. HBV-DR is common in HBV/HIV-1 coinfected patients receiving lamivudine-containing ART without tenofovir. Positive HBeAg and longer duration of lamivudine use are risk factors for HBV-DR. In addition to lamivudine resistance, cross-resistance to other anti-HBV drugs is also frequently observed.
ISSN: 1087-2914
DOI: 10.1089/apc.2009.0322

Record 103 of 726
Author(s): Thanasai, J (Thanasai, Jongkonnee); Limpaiboon, T (Limpaiboon, Temduang); Jearanaikoon, P (Jearanaikoon, Patcharee); Sripa, B (Sripa, Banchob); Pairojkul, C (Pairojkul, Chawalit); Tantimavanich, S (Tantimavanich, Srisurang); Miwa, M (Miwa, Masanao)
Title: Effects of thymidine phosphorylase on tumor aggressiveness and 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma
Source: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 16 (13): 1631-1638 APR 7 2010
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the role of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in cholangiocarcinoma using small interfering RNA (siRNA).
METHODS: A human cholangiocarcinoma-derived cell line KKU-M139, which has a naturally high level of endogenous TP, had TP expression transiently knocked down using siRNA. Cell growth, migration, in vitro angiogenesis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity were assayed in TP knockdown and wild-type cell lines.
RESULTS: TP mRNA and protein expression were decreased by 87.1% +/- 0.49% and 72.5% +/- 3.2%, respectively, compared with control cells. Inhibition of TP significantly decreased migration of KKU-M139, and suppressed migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. siRNA also reduced the ability of TP to resist hypoxia-induced apoptosis, while suppression of TP reduced the sensitivity of KKU-M139 to 5-fluorouracil.
CONCLUSION: Inhibition of TP may be beneficial in decreasing angiogenesis-dependent growth and migration of cholangiocarcinoma but may diminish the response to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1007-9327
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i13.1631

Record 104 of 726
Author(s): Pongsthorn, C (Pongsthorn, Chanplakorn); Ozawa, H (Ozawa, Hiroshi); Aizawa, T (Aizawa, Toshimi); Kusakabe, T (Kusakabe, Takashi); Nakamura, T (Nakamura, Takeshi); Itoi, E (Itoi, Eiji)
Title: Giant sacral schwannoma: A report of six cases
Source: UPSALA JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, 115 (2): 146-152 MAY 2010
Abstract: Sacral and presacral schwannomas are often found incidentally, because they present with vague symptoms or symptomless. Schwannoma occurring in this area occasionally presents with enormous dimensions, known as a giant schwannoma. The tumor removal is a surgical challenge due to the difficult approach and abundant vascularity. The aim of this study is to review cases of giant sacral schwannomas focusing the surgical management and outcome. Six patients with sacral and presacral schwannoma were treated surgically. The patients included two males and four females, and the mean age was 47.8 years. All patients experienced pain at the time of presentation. The tumors were classified as intraosseous type in one case, dumb-bell type in four cases, and retroperitoneal type in one case. The tumors were removed with a piecemeal subtotal excision in three patients, a partial excision in two patients, and enucleation in one patient. The surgeries were performed by the combination of an anterior and posterior approach in three patients, a posterior approach in two patients, and an anterior approach in one patient. The mean surgical time was 7.8 hrs, and the mean blood loss was 2572 g. The tumor recurred in one patient after the partial excision and was removed completely in a second surgery. No patient, including the patient who underwent the second surgery, presented with pain and obvious neurological deficit at the final follow-up. The surgical treatment of the giant sacral schwannoma with a piecemeal subtotal excision can achieve a good outcome, avoiding unnecessary neurological deficit.
ISSN: 0300-9734
DOI: 10.3109/03009730903359674

Record 105 of 726
Author(s): Watcharananan, SP (Watcharananan, S. P.); Suwatanapongched, T (Suwatanapongched, T.); Wacharawanichkul, P (Wacharawanichkul, P.); Chantratitaya, W (Chantratitaya, W.); Mavichak, V (Mavichak, V.); Mossad, SB (Mossad, S. B.)
Title: Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients: characteristics and outcomes following high-dose oseltamivir exposure
Source: TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE, 12 (2): 127-131 APR 2010
Abstract: P>We report 2 cases of severe pneumonia due to the novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in kidney transplant recipients. Our patients initially experienced influenza-like illness that rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia within 48 h. The patients became hypoxic and required non-invasive ventilation. The novel influenza A/H1N1 2009 was identified from their nasal swabs. These cases were treated successfully with a relatively high dose of oseltamivir, adjusted for their renal function. Clinical improvement was documented only after a week of antiviral therapy. Despite early antiviral treatment, we showed that morbidity following novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection is high among kidney transplant recipients.
ISSN: 1398-2273
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00493.x

Record 106 of 726
Author(s): Panchan, W (Panchan, Waraporn); Chiampanichayakul, S (Chiampanichayakul, Supanimit); Snyder, DL (Snyder, Deanna L.); Yodbuntung, S (Yodbuntung, Siriporn); Pohmakotr, M (Pohmakotr, Manat); Reutrakul, V (Reutrakul, Vichai); Jaipetch, T (Jaipetch, Thaworn); Kuhakarn, C (Kuhakarn, Chutima)
Title: Facile oxidative hydrolysis of acetals to esters using hypervalent iodine(III)/LiBr combination in water
Source: TETRAHEDRON, 66 (14): 2732-2735 APR 3 2010
Abstract: The combination of (diacetoxy)iodobenzene (Phl(OAc)(2), DIB) and lithium bromide (LiBr) efficiently oxidized cyclic and acyclic acetals to the corresponding hydroxyalkyl carboxylic esters and simple esters in good to excellent yields The merits of this reaction are that it employs commercially available and non-explosive hypervalent iodine(III) reagent, water as the solvent, a short reaction tune, and mild reaction conditions (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved
ISSN: 0040-4020
DOI: 10.1016/j.tet.2010.01.098

Record 107 of 726
Author(s): Ruamsup, S (Ruamsup, S.); Wiratkapun, C (Wiratkapun, C.); Wibulpolprasert, B (Wibulpolprasert, B.); Lertsithichai, P (Lertsithichai, P.)
Title: A comparison between short-interval and regular-interval follow-up for BI-RADS category 3 lesions
Source: SINGAPORE MEDICAL JOURNAL, 51 (2): 120-125 FEB 2010
Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the short-interval and regular-interval follow-up in women with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 screen imaging studies. The image stability, rate of image-detected breast cancer and stage of cancer are studied.
Methods : Women who had BI-RADS 3 screen imaging studies (mammography and ultrasonography) conducted between the period January 2003 and December 2005 were retrospectively identified using the computerised database at the Department of Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Women who had known breast cancer status at two years after screening were included in the study and divided into two groups: short-interval (six months after screening) or regular-interval (one year after screening) follow-up. The two groups were compared in terms of the baseline clinico-radiologic characteristics and outcomes, including the image stability, image-detected breast cancer and the cancer stage at detection.
Results: A total of 10,086 women underwent screen imaging studies within the study period. Of these, 1,541 (15 percent) were categorised as BI-RADS 3. Only 1,036 women (67 percent) had follow-up images done six to 12 months after screening, and 846 (82 percent of 1,036 women) also had known cancer status two years after the screening. Breast cancer was noted in seven women (a positive predictive value of 0.7 percent). There were no significant differences between the two groups of women in terms of their baseline characteristics, image stability at the initial follow-up, the rate of image-detected breast cancer and the stage of cancer at detection.
Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of short-interval versus regular-interval follow-up in women with BI-RADS 3 screen imaging studies.
ISSN: 0037-5675

Record 108 of 726
Author(s): Allen, MA (Allen, Michael A.)
Title: On the current obsession with publication statistics
Source: SCIENCEASIA, 36 (1): 1-5 MAR 2010
Abstract: Crude publication statistics such as publication counts and impact factors are routinely being employed to assess individuals and institutions. Although they can play a role in an approximate preliminary assessment, using them for anything more is inappropriate due to their over-simplicity and ease of manipulation. Furthermore, it is argued that rewarding scientists for achieving high scores in such number-based evaluations ultimately leads to a slowing of scientific progress. Suggestions are given on how reliance on statistics can be reduced and their manipulation discouraged.
ISSN: 1513-1874
DOI: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2010.36.001

Record 109 of 726
Author(s): Jintaridth, P (Jintaridth, Pornrutsami); Mutirangura, A (Mutirangura, Apiwat)
Title: Distinctive patterns of age-dependent hypomethylation in interspersed repetitive sequences
Source: PHYSIOLOGICAL GENOMICS, 41 (2): 194-200 APR 2010
Abstract: Jintaridth P, Mutirangura A. Distinctive patterns of age-dependent hypomethylation in interspersed repetitive sequences. Physiol Genomics 41: 194-200, 2010. First published February 9, 2010; doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00146.2009.-Interspersed repetitive sequences (IRSs) are a major contributor to genome size and may contribute to cellular functions. IRSs are subdivided according to size and functionally related structures into short interspersed elements, long interspersed elements (LINEs), DNA transposons, and LTR-retrotransposons. Many IRSs may produce RNA and regulate genes by a variety of mechanisms. The majority of DNA methylation occurs in IRSs and is believed to suppress IRS activities. Global hypomethylation, or the loss of genome-wide methylation, is a common epigenetic event not only in senescent cells but also in cancer cells. Loss of LINE-1 methylation has been characterized in many cancers. Here, we evaluated the methylation levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of LINE-1, Alu, and human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in 177 samples obtained from volunteers between 20 and 88 yr of age. Age was negatively associated with methylation levels of Alu (r = -0.452, P < 10(-3)) and HERV-K (r = -0.326, P < 10(-3)) but not LINE-1 (r = 0.145, P = 0.055). Loss of methylation of Alu occurred during ages 34-68 yr, and loss of methylation of HERV-K occurred during ages 40-63 yr and again during ages 64-83 yr. Interestingly, methylation of Alu and LINE-1 are directly associated, particularly at ages 49 yr and older (r = 0.49, P < 10(-3)). Therefore, only some types of IRSs lose methylation at certain ages. Moreover, Alu and HERV-K become hypomethylated differently. Finally, there may be several mechanisms of global methylation. However, not all of these mechanisms are age-dependent. This finding may lead to a better understanding of not only the biological causes and consequences of genome-wide hypomethylation but also the role of IRSs in the aging process.
ISSN: 1094-8341
DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00146.2009

Record 110 of 726
Author(s): Liewrian, W (Liewrian, Watchara); Hoonsawat, R (Hoonsawat, Rassmidara); Tang, IM (Tang, I-Ming)
Title: Spin switching effects in a ferromagnetic graphene junction having a second gate
Abstract: The effects of the bias voltage placed on a second gate which is positioned to the left of the ferromagnetic graphene (FG) layer on the switching of the charge and spin transports in a ferromagnetic graphene junction are studied. We show that the change in the bias voltage from positive to negative (while maintaining the positive voltage on the first gate above the FG layer) can induce a switching from high to low conductance states in the junction. The voltage on the first gate is used to shift the Fermi level in the FG layer. Enhancement of the on/off conductance ratio on the switching is shown to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the second gate barrier. We show that by biasing the nanostructures with the voltage U-2, the spin polarization can be increased and that as a consequence, the thickness of the FG barrier layer needed for spin-polarized transport can be reduced. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1386-9477
DOI: 10.1016/j.physe.2009.10.051

Record 111 of 726
Author(s): Klainin, P (Klainin, Piyanee); Ounnapiruk, L (Ounnapiruk, Liwan)
Title: A Meta-Analysis of Self-Care Behavior Research on Elders in Thailand:An Update
Source: NURSING SCIENCE QUARTERLY, 23 (2): 156-163 APR 2010
Abstract: Self-care is essential for elderly individuals to maintain their optimal level of health. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize research findings relating to self-care among the elderly in Thailand. Twenty studies undertaken from 1990 to 2008 were used and 328 effect sizes were computed. Most studies were unpublished master's theses guided by Orem's self-care deficit theory. Data were collected in these studies by face-to-face interviews. Variables with the largest effect sizes encompassed self-concept, social support, and self-efficacy. Those with medium effect sizes entailed family relationships, overall health beliefs, internal locus of control, health status, and external locus of control. Results from this meta-analysis is useful information for nursing.
ISSN: 0894-3184
DOI: 10.1177/0894318410362788

Record 112 of 726
Author(s): Phornphisutthimas, S (Phornphisutthimas, S.); Sudtachat, N (Sudtachat, N.); Bunyoo, C (Bunyoo, C.); Chotewutmontri, P (Chotewutmontri, P.); Panijpan, B (Panijpan, B.); Thamchaipenet, A (Thamchaipenet, A.)
Title: Development of an intergeneric conjugal transfer system for rimocidin-producing Streptomyces rimosus
Source: LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, 50 (5): 530-536 MAY 2010
Abstract: Aims:
To develop an intergeneric conjugation system for rimocidin-producing Streptomyces rimosus.
Methods and Results:
High efficiencies of conjugation [10-2-10-3 transconjugants/recipient colony forming units (CFU)] were obtained when spores of S. rimosus were heat treated at 40 degrees C for 10 min prior to mixing with E. coli ET12567(pUZ8002/pIJ8600) as donor. Mycelium from liquid grown cultures of S. rimosus could also be used as recipient instead of spores, with 24-h cultures giving optimal results. TSA (Oxoid) medium containing 10 m mol l-1 MgCl2 was the preferred medium for conjugation. Southern hybridization was used to confirm that transconjugants of S. rimosus contained a single copy of pIJ8600 integrated at a unique chromosomal attachment site (attB). The transconjugants exhibited a high stability of plasmid integration and showed strong expression of green fluorescent protein when using pIJ8655 as the conjugative vector.
Intergeneric conjugation between E. coli and S. rimosus was achieved at high efficiency using both spores and mycelium.
Significance and Impact of the Study:
The conjugation system developed provides a convenient gene expression system for S. rimosus R7 and will enable the genetic manipulation of the rimocidin gene cluster.
ISSN: 0266-8254
DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.02835.x

Record 113 of 726
Author(s): Wynne, A (Wynne, Alexander)
Title: The Buddha's 'skill in means' and the genesis of the five aggregate teaching Winner of the 2nd Professor Mary Boyce Award
Source: JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 20: 191-216 Part 2 APR 2010
Abstract: The problem tackled in this article is ambitious. 'Through examination of how certain fundamental teachings of the Buddha originated the author argues that those teachings must indeed back to the Buddha himself Thus the author builds a chain of argument which creates hypothetical links rather than declaring 'a priori' that links and connection cannot be established.
This article argues that the Alagaddapama Sutta, an important early Buddhist text, portrays the Buddha in the process of formulating Ins thoughts. If so it contradicts the myth that the Buddha awakened to the entire Buddhist Dharma on one occasion, and should be dated to the fourth century Such an antiquity, and peculiar didactic structure suggests that the text contains authentic teachings of the Buddha.
ISSN: 1356-1863
DOI: 10.1017/S1356186309990496

Record 114 of 726
Author(s): Tocharus, J (Tocharus, Jiraporn); Khonthun, C (Khonthun, Chakkrapong); Chongthammakun, S (Chongthammakun, Sukumal); Govitrapong, P (Govitrapong, Piyarat)
Title: Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglial cell lines
Source: JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, 48 (4): 347-352 MAY 2010
Abstract: Methamphetamine (METH), the most commonly abused drug, has long been known to induce neurotoxicity. METH causes oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as the overproduction of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The role of METH-induced brain inflammation remains unclear. Imbroglio activation contributes to the neuronal damage that accompanies injury, disease and inflammation. METH may activate microglia to produce neuroinflammatory molecules. In highly aggressively proliferating immortalized (HAPI) cells, a rat microglial cell line, METH reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and initiated the expression of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha. METH also induced the production of both ROS and RNS in microglial cells. Pretreatment with melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, abolished METH-induced toxicity, suppressed ROS and RNS formation and also had an inhibitory effect on cytotoxic factor gene expression. The expression of cytotoxic factors produced by microglia may contribute to central nervous system degeneration in amphetamine abusers. Melatonin attenuates METH toxicity and inhibits the expression of cytotoxic factor genes associated with ROS and RNS neutralization in HAPI microglia. Thus, melatonin might be one of the neuroprotective agents induced by METH toxicity and/or other immunogens.
ISSN: 0742-3098
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2010.00761.x

Record 115 of 726
Author(s): Senapin, S (Senapin, S.); Thaowbut, Y (Thaowbut, Y.); Gangnonngiw, W (Gangnonngiw, W.); Chuchird, N (Chuchird, N.); Sriurairatana, S (Sriurairatana, S.); Flegel, TW (Flegel, T. W.)
Title: Impact of yellow head virus outbreaks in the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), in Thailand
Source: JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, 33 (5): 421-430 MAY 2010
Abstract: Yellow head virus (YHV) is known as a major pathogen in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. It can also cause serious mortality in farmed whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. However, there is no published information on the economic and/or production impact of the disease in P. vannamei. Shrimp with gross signs of YHV disease (faded body colour and 60-70% mortality) were observed in 20 study farms rearing P. vannamei in the central part of Thailand from the end of 2007 through early 2008. The estimated economic loss for these farms according to the Thai Animal Aquaculture Association was approximately US$3 million. Detailed sequence analysis of RT-PCR amplicons from shrimp in all the study ponds revealed the presence of YHV Type 1b (YHV-1b) alone (characterized by a 162-bp deletion in the ORF3 region encoding the structural gene for gp116) and the absence of YHV Type 1a (YHV-1a), the original YHV type reported from Thailand. Despite the large 162-bp deletion (= 54 deduced amino acids) in the gp116 structural gene, histopathology of YHV-1b infections was identical to that of YHV-1a infections, and electron microscopy revealed that YHV-1b virions were morphologically indistinguishable from those previously reported for YHV-1a. In addition, an existing commercial RT-PCR detection kit and an immunochromatographic test strip for the detection of YHV were proven to have been valid tests for both YHV-1b and YHV-1a. The source of the virus for these outbreaks was unlikely to have been the post-larvae used to stock the ponds, as they were derived from domesticated specific pathogen-free stocks free of YHV. Thus, it is possible that they originated from an unknown, natural reservoir.
ISSN: 0140-7775
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01135.x

Record 116 of 726
Author(s): Avirutnan, P (Avirutnan, Panisadee); Fuchs, A (Fuchs, Anja); Hauhart, RE (Hauhart, Richard E.); Somnuke, P (Somnuke, Pawit); Youn, S (Youn, Soonjeon); Diamond, MS (Diamond, Michael S.); Atkinson, JP (Atkinson, John P.)
Title: Antagonism of the complement component C4 by flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1
Source: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 207 (4): 793-806 APR 12 2010
Abstract: The complement system plays an essential protective role in the initial defense against many microorganisms. Flavivirus NS1 is a secreted nonstructural glycoprotein that accumulates in blood, is displayed on the surface of infected cells, and has been hypothesized to have immune evasion functions. Herein, we demonstrate that dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) NS1 attenuate classical and lectin pathway activation by directly interacting with C4. Binding of NS1 to C4 reduced C4b deposition and C3 convertase (C4b2a) activity. Although NS1 bound C4b, it lacked intrinsic cofactor activity to degrade C4b, and did not block C3 convertase formation or accelerate decay of the C3 and C5 convertases. Instead, NS1 enhanced C4 cleavage by recruiting and activating the complement-specific protease C1s. By binding C1s and C4 in a complex, NS1 promotes efficient degradation of C4 to C4b. Through this mechanism, NS1 protects DENV from complement-dependent neutralization in solution. These studies define a novel immune evasion mechanism for restricting complement control of microbial infection.
ISSN: 0022-1007
DOI: 10.1084/jem.20092545

Record 117 of 726
Author(s): Pasomsub, E (Pasomsub, Ekawat); Sukasem, C (Sukasem, Chonlaphat); Sungkanuparph, S (Sungkanuparph, Somnuek); Kijsirikul, B (Kijsirikul, Boonserm); Chantratita, W (Chantratita, Wasun)
Title: The Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Phenotypic Drug Resistance Prediction: Evaluation and Comparison with Other Interpretation Systems
Abstract: Although phenotypic resistance testing provides more direct measurement of antiretroviral drug resistance than genotypic testing, it is costly and time-consuming. However, genotypic resistance testing has the advantages of being simpler and more accessible, and it might be possible to use the data obtained for predicting quantitative drug susceptibility to interpret complex mutation combinations This study applied the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) system to predict the HIV-1 resistance phenotype from the genotype. A total of 7,598 pairs of HIV-1 sequences, with their corresponding phenotypic fold change values for 14 antiretroviral drugs, were trained, validated, and tested in ANN modeling. The results were compared with the HIV-SEQ and Geno2pheno interpretation systems. The prediction performance of the ANN models was measured by 10-fold cross-validation. The results indicated that by using the ANN, with an associated set of amino acid positions known to influence drug resistance for individual antiretroviral drugs, drug resistance was accurately predicted and generalized for individual HIV-1 subtypes. Therefore, high correlation with the experimental phenotype may help physicians choose optimal therapeutic regimens that might be an option, or supporting system, of FDA-approved genotypic resistance testing in heavily treatment-experienced patients.
ISSN: 1344-6304

Record 118 of 726
Author(s): Krityakiarana, W (Krityakiarana, W.); Espinosa-Jeffrey, A (Espinosa-Jeffrey, A.); Ghiani, CA (Ghiani, C. A.); Zhao, PM (Zhao, P. M.); Topaldjikian, N (Topaldjikian, N.); Gomez-Pinilla, F (Gomez-Pinilla, F.); Yamaguchi, M (Yamaguchi, M.); Kotchabhakdi, N (Kotchabhakdi, N.); de Vellis, J (de Vellis, J.)
Title: Voluntary Exercise Increases Oligodendrogenesis in Spinal Cord
Abstract: Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of exercise on oligodendrocyte generation have not yet been reported. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that voluntary exercise may affect neurogenesis, and more in particular, oligodendrogenesis in the thoracic segment of the intact spinal cord of adult nestin-GFP transgenic mice. Voluntary exercise for 7 and 14 days increased nestin-GFP expression around the ependymal area. In addition, voluntary exercise for 7 days significantly increased nestin-GFP expression in both the white and gray matter of the thoracic segment of the intact spinal cord, whereas, 14-day exercise decreased nestin-GFP expression. Markers for immature oligodendrocytes (transferrin and CNPase) were significantly increased after 7 days of voluntary exercise. These results suggest that voluntary exercise positively influences oligodendrogenesis in the intact spinal cord, emphasizing the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise as a possible co-treatment for spinal cord injury.
ISSN: 0020-7454
DOI: 10.3109/00207450903222741

Record 119 of 726
Author(s): Nakornchai, S (Nakornchai, Siriruk); Banditsing, P (Banditsing, Panit); Visetratana, N (Visetratana, Nattida)
Title: Clinical evaluation of 3Mix and Vitapex (R) as treatment options for pulpally involved primary molars
Abstract: Objective.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success of 3Mix and Vitapex (R) for root canal treatment of pulpally involved primary molars.
Fifty teeth from 37 healthy children aged 3-8 years with pulpally involved primary molars needing root canal procedures were treated with 3Mix or Vitapex (R) before restoration with stainless steel crowns. The research employed a prospective single-blinded randomized design. The subjects were followed up clinically and radiographically at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The outcome was compared using a Z-test with a significance level of 0.05.
Both groups showed 100% and 96% clinical success at 6 and 12 months, respectively. At 6 months, radiographic success of 3Mix and Vitapex (R) was 84% and 80%, respectively, and at 12 months, radiographic success of 3Mix and Vitapex (R) was 76% and 56%, respectively. Considering the radiographic findings at the end of 6 and 12 months, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (P = 0.356 and 0.068, respectively).
3Mix and Vitapex (R) can be used as a root canal treatment agent in pulpally involved primary teeth.
ISSN: 0960-7439
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01044.x

Record 120 of 726
Author(s): Siriboonpiputtana, T (Siriboonpiputtana, T.); Jomsawat, U (Jomsawat, U.); Rinthachai, T (Rinthachai, T.); Thanakitgosate, J (Thanakitgosate, J.); Shotivaranon, J (Shotivaranon, J.); Limsuwanachot, N (Limsuwanachot, N.); Polyorat, P (Polyorat, P.); Rerkamnuaychoke, B (Rerkamnuaychoke, B.)
Title: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Central Thai population
Abstract: 12 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS439 and DYS437) were typed with PowerPlex(R) Y System (Promega, USA) in a total sample of 501 unrelated males from the central part of Thailand. Allele frequencies and gene diversity for each Y-STR locus were determined. Haplotype diversity from the combined 12 Y-STR loci was 0.9996. The present results can be used as Thai ethnic genetic information resources in routine forensic analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1872-4973
DOI: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.06.007

Record 121 of 726
Author(s): Chuangchaiya, S (Chuangchaiya, S.); Jangpatarapongsa, K (Jangpatarapongsa, K.); Chootong, P (Chootong, P.); Sirichaisinthop, J (Sirichaisinthop, J.); Sattabongkot, J (Sattabongkot, J.); Pattanapanyasat, K (Pattanapanyasat, K.); Chotivanich, K (Chotivanich, K.); Troye-Blomberg, M (Troye-Blomberg, M.); Cui, L (Cui, L.); Udomsangpetch, R (Udomsangpetch, R.)
Title: Immune response to Plasmodium vivax has a potential to reduce malaria severity
Abstract: P>Plasmodium falciparum infection causes transient immunosuppression during the parasitaemic stage. However, the immune response during simultaneous infections with both P. vivax and P. falciparum has been investigated rarely. In particular, it is not clear whether the host's immune response to malaria will be different when infected with a single or mixed malaria species. Phenotypes of T cells from mixed P. vivax-P. falciparum (PV-PF) infection were characterized by flow cytometry, and anti-malarial antibodies in the plasma were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found the percentage of CD3+delta 2+-T cell receptor (TCR) T cells in the acute-mixed PV-PF infection and single P. vivax infection three times higher than in the single P. falciparum infection. This implied that P. vivax might lead to the host immune response to the production of effector T killer cells. During the parasitaemic stage, the mixed PV-PF infection had the highest number of plasma antibodies against both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Interestingly, plasma from the group of single P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria infections had both anti-P. vivax and anti-P. falciparum antibodies. In addition, antigenic cross-reactivity of P. vivax or P. falciparum resulting in antibodies against both malaria species was shown in the supernatant of lymphocyte cultures cross-stimulated with either antigen of P. vivax or P. falciparum. The role of delta 2 +/- TCR T cells and the antibodies against both species during acute mixed malaria infection could have an impact on the immunity to malaria infection.
ISSN: 0009-9104
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.04075.x

Record 122 of 726
Author(s): Sherva, R (Sherva, Richard); Sripichai, O (Sripichai, Orapan); Abel, K (Abel, Kenneth); Ma, QL (Ma, Qianli); Whitacre, J (Whitacre, Johanna); Angkachatchai, V (Angkachatchai, Vach); Makarasara, W (Makarasara, Wattanan); Winichagoon, P (Winichagoon, Pranee); Svasti, S (Svasti, Saovaros); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat); Braun, A (Braun, Andreas); Farrer, LA (Farrer, Lindsay A.)
Title: Genetic modifiers of Hb E/beta(0) thalassemia identified by a two-stage genome-wide association study
Source: BMC MEDICAL GENETICS, 11: Art. No. 51 MAR 30 2010
Abstract: Background: Patients with Hb E/beta(0) thalassemia display remarkable variability in disease severity. To identify genetic modifiers influencing disease severity, we conducted a two-stage genome scan in groups of 207 mild and 305 severe unrelated patients from Thailand with Hb E/beta(0) thalassemia and normal a-globin genes.
Methods: First, we estimated and compared the allele frequencies of approximately 110,000 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pooled DNAs from different severity groups. The 756 SNPs that showed reproducible allelic differences at P < 0.02 by pooling were selected for individual genotyping.
Results: After adjustment for age, gender and geographic region, logistic regression models showed 50 SNPs significantly associated with disease severity (P < 0.05) after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. Forty-one SNPs in a large LD block within the beta-globin gene cluster had major alleles associated with severe disease. The most significant was bthal_bg200 (odds ratio (OR) = 5.56, P = 2.6 x 10(-13)). Seven SNPs in two distinct LD blocks within a region centromeric to the beta-globin gene cluster that contains many olfactory receptor genes were also associated with disease severity; rs3886223 had the strongest association (OR = 3.03, P = 3.7 x 10(-11)). Several previously unreported SNPs were also significantly associated with disease severity.
Conclusions: These results suggest that there may be an additional regulatory region centromeric to the beta-globin gene cluster that affects disease severity by modulating fetal hemoglobin expression.
ISSN: 1471-2350
Article Number: 51
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-51

Record 123 of 726
Author(s): Duangpan, S (Duangpan, Saowapa); Jitrapakdee, S (Jitrapakdee, Sarawut); Adina-Zada, A (Adina-Zada, Abdussalam); Byrne, L (Byrne, Lindsay); Zeczycki, TN (Zeczycki, Tonya N.); Maurice, MS (Maurice, Martin St.); Cleland, WW (Cleland, W. Wallace); Wallace, JC (Wallace, John C.); Attwood, PV (Attwood, Paul V.)
Title: Probing the Catalytic Roles of Arg548 and Gln552 in the Carboxyl Transferase Domain of the Rhizobium etli Pyruvate Carboxylase by Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Source: BIOCHEMISTRY, 49 (15): 3296-3304 APR 20 2010
Abstract: The roles of Arg548 and Gln552 residues in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of Rhizobium pyruvate carboxylase were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of Arg548 to alanine or glutamine resulted in the destabilization of the quaternary structure of the enzyme, suggesting that this residue has a structural role. Mutations R548K, Q552N, and Q552A resulted in a loss of the ability to catalyze pyruvate carboxylation, biotin-dependent decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, and the exchange of protons between pyruvate and water. These mutants retained the ability to catalyze reactions that occur at the active site of the biotin carboxylase domain. i.e., bicarbonate-dependent ATP cleavage and ADP phosphorylation by carbamoyl phosphate. The effects of oxamate on the catalysis in the biotin carboxylase domain by the R548K and Q552N mutants were similar to those on the catalysis of reactions by the wild-type enzyme. However, the presence of oxamate had no effect on the reactions catalyzed by the Q552A mutant. We propose that Arg548 and Gln552 facilitate the binding of pyruvate and the subsequent transfer of protons between pyruvate and biotin in the partial reaction catalyzed in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase.
ISSN: 0006-2960
DOI: 10.1021/bi901894t

Record 124 of 726
Author(s): McGready, R (McGready, Rose); Blacksell, SD (Blacksell, Stuart D.); Luksameetanasan, R (Luksameetanasan, Rungnapa); Wuthiekanun, V (Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn); Jedsadapanpong, W (Jedsadapanpong, Wilairat); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); Nosten, F (Nosten, Francois)
Title: First Report of an Orientia tsutsugamushi Type TA716-Related Scrub Typhus Infection in Thailand
Source: VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES, 10 (2): 191-193 MAR 2010
Abstract: Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus and is a rural zoonosis endemic in the Asia Pacific region. This is the first report of O. tsutsugamushi TA716-like strain in a human in Thailand. The patient was in the 1st trimester of pregnancy when she developed scrub typhus. The O. tsutsugamushi strain TA716 was detected from her admission blood sample, and the pregnancy ended in spontaneous abortion. The effects of scrub typhus in pregnant women and the pregnancy outcome are sparsely documented in the published medical literature. Improved clinical recognition and laboratory diagnosis will be essential to better define the morbidity caused by this zoonosis especially in pregnancy.
ISSN: 1530-3667
DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2008.0199

Record 125 of 726
Author(s): Sae-Oui, P (Sae-Oui, Pongdhorn); Sirisinha, C (Sirisinha, Chakrit); Sa-nguanthammarong, P (Sa-nguanthammarong, Promsak); Thaptong, P (Thaptong, Puchong)
Title: Properties and recyclability of thermoplastic elastomer prepared from natural rubber powder (NRP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)
Source: POLYMER TESTING, 29 (3): 346-351 MAY 2010
Abstract: Preparation of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) was carried out by blending high density polyethylene (HDPE) with natural rubber powder (NRP) obtained from spray drying of pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex. The blend ratio of NRP/HDPE was varied and the properties and recyclability of the TPNRs were investigated. The results reveal that, due to flow restriction of the crosslinked NRP, viscosity of the TPNR increases continuously with increasing NRP content. As expected, when NRP content is increased, properties the TPNR are more rubber-like, as clearly observed from the stress-strain curve characteristics, the reductions in modulus and hardness and, most importantly, the significant improvement of permanent set. Although phase size of the dispersed NRP is relatively large, the tensile strength tends to increase gradually with increasing NRP content. The phenomenon of strain-induced crystallization is proposed to explain the results. It is also found that recycling has a noticeably detrimental influence on most properties of the TPNRs such as tensile strength, tear strength, hardness and tension set. This is thought to be a consequence of thermal degradation of the NRP during the recycling process. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0142-9418
DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2009.12.010

Record 126 of 726
Author(s): Fried, JR (Fried, Jessica R.); Gibbons, RV (Gibbons, Robert V.); Kalayanarooj, S (Kalayanarooj, Siripen); Thomas, SJ (Thomas, Stephen J.); Srikiatkhachorn, A (Srikiatkhachorn, Anon); Yoon, IK (Yoon, In-Kyu); Jarman, RG (Jarman, Richard G.); Green, S (Green, Sharone); Rothman, AL (Rothman, Alan L.); Cummings, DAT (Cummings, Derek A. T.)
Title: Serotype-Specific Differences in the Risk of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: An Analysis of Data Collected in Bangkok, Thailand from 1994 to 2006
Source: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 4 (3): Art. No. e617 MAR 2010
Abstract: Background: It is unclear whether dengue serotypes differ in their propensity to cause severe disease. We analyzed differences in serotype-specific disease severity in children presenting for medical attention in Bangkok, Thailand.
Methodology/Principal Findings: Prospective studies were conducted from 1994 to 2006. Univariate and multivariate logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to determine if dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and signs of severe clinical disease (pleural effusion, ascites, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration) were associated with serotype. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. There were 162 (36%) cases with DENV-1, 102 (23%) with DENV-2, 123 (27%) with DENV-3, and 64 (14%) with DENV-4. There was no significant difference in the rates of DHF by serotype: DENV-2 (43%), DENV-3 (39%), DENV-1 (34%), DENV-4 (31%). DENV-2 was significantly associated with increased odds of DHF grade I compared to DF (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.1, 8.0), when using DENV-1 as the reference. Though not statistically significant, DENV-2 had an increased odds of total DHF and DHF grades II, III, and IV. Secondary serologic response was significantly associated with DHF (OR 6.2) and increased when considering more severe grades of DHF. DENV-2 (9%) and -4 (3%) were significantly less often associated with primary disease than DENV-1 (28%) and -3 (33%). Restricting analysis to secondary cases, we found DENV-2 and DENV-3 to be twice as likely to result in DHF as DEN-4 (p = 0.05). Comparing study years, we found the rate of DHF to be significantly less in 1999, 2000, 2004, and 2005 than in 1994, the study year with the highest percentage of DHF cases, even when controlling for other variables.
Conclusions/Significance: As in other studies, we find secondary disease to be strongly associated with DHF and with more severe grades of DHF. DENV-2 appears to be marginally associated with more severe dengue disease as evidenced by a significant association with DHF grade I when compared to DENV-1. In addition, we found non-significant trends with other grades of DHF. Restricting the analysis to secondary disease we found DENV-2 and -3 to be twice as likely to result in DHF as DEN-4. Differences in severity by study year may suggest that other factors besides serotype play a role in disease severity.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Article Number: e617
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000617

Record 127 of 726
Author(s): Setou, M (Setou, Mitsutoshi); Shrivas, K (Shrivas, Kamlesh); Sroyraya, M (Sroyraya, Morakot); Yang, H (Yang, Hyunjeong); Sugiura, Y (Sugiura, Yuki); Moribe, J (Moribe, Junji); Kondo, A (Kondo, Akira); Tsutsumi, K (Tsutsumi, Koji); Kimura, Y (Kimura, Yoshishige); Kurabe, N (Kurabe, Nobuya); Hayasaka, T (Hayasaka, Takahiro); Goto-Inoue, N (Goto-Inoue, Naoko); Zaima, N (Zaima, Nobuhiro); Ikegami, K (Ikegami, Koji); Sobhon, P (Sobhon, Prasert); Konishi, Y (Konishi, Yoshiyuki)
Title: Developments and applications of mass microscopy
Abstract: We have developed a mass microscopy technique, i.e., a microscope combined with high-resolution matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), which is a powerful tool for investigating the spatial distribution of biomolecules without any time-consuming extraction, purification, and separation procedures for biological tissue sections. Mass microscopy provides clear images about the distribution of hundreds of biomolecules in a single measurement and also helps in understanding the cellular profile of the biological system. The sample preparation and the spatial resolution and speed of the technique are all important steps that affect the identification of biomolecules in mass microscopy. In this Award Lecture Review, we focus on some of the recent developments in clinical applications to show how mass microscopy can be employed to assess medical molecular morphology.
ISSN: 1860-1480
DOI: 10.1007/s00795-009-0489-0

Record 128 of 726
Author(s): Kachadroka, S (Kachadroka, Supatra); Hall, AM (Hall, Alicia M.); Niedzielko, TL (Niedzielko, Tracy L.); Chongthammakun, S (Chongthammakun, Sukumal); Floyd, CL (Floyd, Candace L.)
Title: Effect of Endogenous Androgens on 17 beta-Estradiol-Mediated Protection after Spinal Cord Injury in Male Rats
Source: JOURNAL OF NEUROTRAUMA, 27 (3): 611-626 MAR 2010
Abstract: Several groups have recently shown that 17 beta-estradiol is protective in spinal cord injury (SCI). Testosterone can be aromatized to 17 beta-estradiol and may increase estrogen-mediated protection. Alternatively, testosterone has been shown to increase excitotoxicity in models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. These experiments test the hypothesis that endogenous testosterone in male rats alters 17 beta-estradiol-mediated protection by evaluating a delayed administration over a clinically relevant dose range and manipulating testicular-derived testosterone. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were either gonadectomized or left gonad-intact prior to SCI. SCI was produced by a midthoracic crush injury. At 30 min post SCI, animals received a subcutaneous pellet of 0.0, 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0mg of 17 beta-estradiol, released over 21 days. Hindlimb locomotion was analyzed weekly in the open field. Spinal cords were collected and analyzed for cell death, expression of Bcl-family proteins, and white-matter sparing. Post-SCI administration of the 0.5- or 5.0-mg pellet improved hindlimb locomotion, reduced urinary bladder size, increased neuronal survival, reduced apoptosis, improved the Bax/Bcl-xL protein ratio, and increased white-matter sparing. In the absence of endogenous testicular-derived androgens, SCI induced greater apoptosis, yet 17 beta-estradiol administration reduced apoptosis to the same extent in gonadectomized and gonad-intact male rats. These data suggest that delayed post-SCI administration of a clinically relevant dose of 17 beta-estradiol is protective in male rats, and endogenous androgens do not alter estrogen-mediated protection. These data suggest that 17 beta-estradiol is an effective therapeutic intervention for reducing secondary damage after SCI in males, which could be readily translated to clinical trials.
ISSN: 0897-7151
DOI: 10.1089/neu.2009.1069

Record 129 of 726
Author(s): Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, C (Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm); Tansila, N (Tansila, Natta); Worachartcheewan, A (Worachartcheewan, Apilak); Bulow, L (Bulow, Leif); Prachayasittikul, V (Prachayasittikul, Virapong)
Title: Biochemical and Cellular Investigation of Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin (VHb) Variants Possessing Efficient Peroxidase Activity
Abstract: Peroxidase-like activity of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has been recently disclosed. To maximize such activity, two catalytically conserved residues (histidine and arginine) found in the distal pocket of peroxidases have successfully been introduced into that of the VHb. A 15-fold increase in catalytic constant (k(cat)) was obtained in P54R variant, which was presumably attributable to the lower rigidity and higher hydrophilicity of the distal cavity arising from substitution of proline to arginine. None of the modifications altered the affinity towards either H2O2 or ABTS substrate. Spectroscopic studies revealed that VHb variants harboring the T29H mutation apparently demonstrated a spectral shift in both ferric and ferrous forms (406-408 to 411 nm, and 432 to 424-425 nm, respectively). All VHb proteins in the ferrous state had a lambda(soret) peak at 419 nm following the carbon monoxide (CO) binding. Expression of the P54R mutant mediated the downregulation of iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) as identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). According to the high peroxidase activity of P54R, it could effectively eliminate autoxidation-derived H2O2, which is a cause of heme degradation and iron release. This decreased the iron availability and consequently reduced the formation of the Fe2+-ferric uptake regulator protein (Fe2+-Fur), an inducer of FeSOD expression.
ISSN: 1017-7825
DOI: 10.4014/jmb.0908.08038

Record 130 of 726
Author(s): Kittigul, L (Kittigul, Leera); Pombubpa, K (Pombubpa, Kannika); Taweekate, Y (Taweekate, Yuthana); Diraphat, P (Diraphat, Pornphan); Sujirarat, D (Sujirarat, Dusit); Khamrin, P (Khamrin, Pattara); Ushijima, H (Ushijima, Hiroshi)
Title: Norovirus GII-4 2006b Variant Circulating in Patients With Acute Gastroenteritis in Thailand During a 2006-2007 Study
Source: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, 82 (5): 854-860 MAY 2010
Abstract: Noroviruses (NoVs) are recognized as a significant cause of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. A 14-month study, from January 2006 to February 2007, was undertaken in a hospital in Thailand to determine the prevalence and genetic characterization of NoVs in patients of all ages with acute gastroenteritis. Based on reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR), NoVs were detected in 122 of 273 (44.7%) collected stool samples. Of the 122 NoV-positive samples, 28 (23%) belonged to GI, 79 (64.8%) belonged to GII, and 15 (12.2%) were mixed infections of GI and GII strains. Three NoV GI-positive and 42 NoV GII-positive samples were characterized successfully by DNA sequencing of the RT-nested PCR products and phylogenetic analysis. For NoV GI, two genotypes were identified: GI-2 (one sample) and GI-6 (two samples). NoV GII could be classified further into five distinct genotypes: GII-2 (1 sample), GII-3 (3 samples), GII-4 (14 samples), GII-6 (3 samples), and GII-17 (2 samples), and one unclassified genotype (19 samples). All NoV GII-4 strains showed 88-98% nucleotide identity with NoV GII-4 2006b variants reported worldwide. Among genotypes of NoV characterized, one co-infected stool sample exhibited NoVs GI-6 and GII-4 2006b. This study suggests that there is an important role of NoVs as etiologic agents in patients with acute gastroenteritis. The predominant circulating genotype of NoV infections is GII-4 2006b variant. J. Med. Virol. 82:854 860, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ISSN: 0146-6615
DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21746

Record 131 of 726
Author(s): Anderson, TJC (Anderson, Tim J. C.); Nair, S (Nair, Shalini); Nkhoma, S (Nkhoma, Standwell); Williams, JT (Williams, Jeff T.); Imwong, M (Imwong, Mallika); Yi, P (Yi, Poravuth); Socheat, D (Socheat, Duong); Das, D (Das, Debashish); Chotivanich, K (Chotivanich, Kesinee); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.); Dondorp, AM (Dondorp, Arjen M.)
Title: High Heritability of Malaria Parasite Clearance Rate Indicates a Genetic Basis for Artemisinin Resistance in Western Cambodia
Source: JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 201 (9): 1326-1330 MAY 1 2010
Abstract: In western Cambodia, malaria parasites clear slowly from the blood after treatment with artemisinin derivatives, but it is unclear whether this results from parasite, host, or other factors specific to this population. We measured heritability of clearance rate by evaluating patients infected with identical or nonidentical parasite genotypes, using methods analogous to human twin studies. A substantial proportion (56%-58%) of the variation in clearance rate is explained by parasite genetics. This has 2 important implications: (1) selection with artemisinin derivatives will tend to drive resistance spread and (2) because heritability is high, the genes underlying parasite clearance rate may be identified by genome-wide association.
ISSN: 0022-1899
DOI: 10.1086/651562

Record 132 of 726
Author(s): Kiertiburanakul, S (Kiertiburanakul, S.); Apivanich, S (Apivanich, S.); Muntajit, T (Muntajit, T.); Sukkra, S (Sukkra, S.); Sirinavin, S (Sirinavin, S.); Leelaudomlipi, S (Leelaudomlipi, S.); Wananukul, W (Wananukul, W.); Satapattayavong, B (Satapattayavong, B.); Malathum, K (Malathum, K.)
Title: H1N1 2009 influenza among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand
Source: JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL INFECTION, 74 (3): 300-302 MAR 2010
ISSN: 0195-6701
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2009.11.001

Record 133 of 726
Author(s): Sae-Oui, P (Sae-Oui, Pongdhorn); Sirisinha, C (Sirisinha, Chakrit); Hatthapanit, K (Hatthapanit, Kannika)
Title: Properties of Natural Rubber Filled with Ultra Fine Acrylate Rubber Powder
Source: JOURNAL OF ELASTOMERS AND PLASTICS, 42 (2): 139-150 MAR 2010
Abstract: Properties of natural rubber (NR) filled with various loadings of ultra-fine vulcanized acrylate rubber powder (ACMP) were investigated. ACMP loading was varied from 0 to 20 phr and, after compounding, the compound properties were determined. Results reveal that increasing ACMP loading leads to improved processability, as evidenced by the reduction of both mixing energy and Mooney viscosity. ACMP, however, has negative effect on cure, that is, both scorch time and optimum cure time are prolonged while the state of cure is reduced with increasing ACMP loading. Due to the reinforcing effect of the fine ACMP particles, both modulus and hardness are found to increase consecutively with increasing ACMP loading. The tensile strength is also found to improve with increasing ACMP loading up to 10 phr. However, due to the cure retardation effect and the high thermoplastic nature, the presence of ACMP causes deterioration of elasticity. As ACMP is highly polar and fully saturated, the addition of ACMP enhances the resistance to oil and thermal aging of the NR vulcanizate. Significant improvement of thermal aging resistance is found when 10 phr or more of ACMP is added.
ISSN: 0095-2443
DOI: 10.1177/0095244310362733

Record 134 of 726
Author(s): Rojruthai, P (Rojruthai, Porntip); Sakdapipanich, JT (Sakdapipanich, Jitladda Tangpakdee); Takahashi, S (Takahashi, Seiji); Hyegin, L (Hyegin, Lee); Noike, M (Noike, Motoyoshi); Koyama, T (Koyama, Tanetoshi); Tanaka, Y (Tanaka, Yasuyuki)
Title: In vitro synthesis of high molecular weight rubber by Hevea small rubber particles
Abstract: Hevea brasiliensis is one of few higher plants producing the commercial natural rubber used in many significant applications. The biosynthesis of high molecular weight rubber molecules by the higher plants has not been clarified yet. Here, the in vitro rubber biosynthesis was performed by using enzymatically active small rubber particles (SRP) from Hevea. The mechanism of the in vitro rubber synthesis was investigated by the molecular weight distribution (MWD). The highly purified SRP prepared by gel filtration and centrifugation in the presence of Triton (R) X-100 showed the low isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) incorporation for the chain extension mechanism of pre-existing rubber. The MWD of in vitro rubber elongated from the pre-existing rubber chains in SRP was analyzed for the first time in the case of H. brasiliensis by incubating without the addition of any initiator. The rubber transferase activity of 70% incorporation of the added IPP (w/w) was obtained when farnesyl diphosphate was present as the allylic diphosphate initiator. The in vitro synthesized rubber showed a typical bimodal MWD of high and low molecular weight fractions in GPC analysis, which was similar to that of the in vivo rubber with peaks at around 10(6) and 10(5) Da or lower. The reaction time independence and dependence of molecular weight of high and low molecular weight fractions, respectively, indicated that the high molecular weight rubber was synthesized from the chain extension of pre-existing rubber molecules whereas the lower one was from the chain elongation of rubber molecules newly synthesized from the added allylic substrates. (C) 2009, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1389-1723
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.009

Record 135 of 726
Author(s): Leardkamolkarn, V (Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra); Sirigulpanit, W (Sirigulpanit, Wipawan); Kinney, RM (Kinney, Richard M.)
Title: Characterization of Recombinant Dengue-2 Virus Derived from a Single Nucleotide Substitution in the 5 ' Noncoding Region
Abstract: Variants of wild-type dengue serotype 2 (DEN-2) virus containing nucleotide substitutions at positions 14, 15, or 57 in the 5' NCR were constructed by PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. All three viruses containing a single point substitution demonstrated attenuation phenotype as evidenced by decreases replication and plaque size in cell culture assay. All three variants were less neurovirulent in newborn mice compared to the wild type. The mutants were immunogenic in adult mice immunogenicity and maintained stable replication characteristics following passage in mice. The variant viruses were competent for replication in Aedes aegypi mosquito vector, albeit at lower levels of infection and dissemination in the mosquito than the wild-type Den-2 16681 virus. Although all of the viruses, including the wild type, were found transmissible in mosquito life cycles, they were found subsequentially decreased in efficiency of infection, transmission, and dissemination rates along the mosquito generations and all of them remained genetically stable.
ISSN: 1110-7243
Article Number: 934694
DOI: 10.1155/2010/934694

Record 136 of 726
Author(s): Thanongsaksrikul, J (Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong); Srimanote, P (Srimanote, Potjanee); Maneewatch, S (Maneewatch, Santi); Choowongkomon, K (Choowongkomon, Kiattawee); Tapchaisri, P (Tapchaisri, Pramuan); Makino, S (Makino, Sou-ichi); Kurazono, H (Kurazono, Hisao); Chaicumpa, W (Chaicumpa, Wanpen)
Title: A VHH That Neutralizes the Zinc Metalloproteinase Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A
Source: JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 285 (13): 9657-9666 MAR 26 2010
Abstract: The current treatment of botulism is to administer animal-derived antitoxin, which frequently causes severe adverse reactions in the recipients. In this study, a heavy chain antibody fragment (VH/VHH) phage display library was constructed by amplification of the immunoglobulin genes of a nonimmune camel, Camelus dromedarius, using primers specific to human VH gene segments. A recombinant light chain of type A botulinumtoxin, BoTxA/LC, with zinc endoprotease activity was used in phage bio-panning to select phage clones displaying BoTxA/LC-bound VH/VHH. Soluble VH/VHH were produced and purified from 10 VH/VHH phagemid-transformed E. coli clones. Complementary determining regions (CDRs) and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs) of the 10 camel VH/VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were determined. FR2 sequences of two clones showed a hallmark of camel VHH, i.e. (F/Y)(ER50)-E-42-R-49(G/F)(52). The remaining eight clones had an FR2 amino acid tetrad of conventional VH, i.e. V(42)G(49)L(50)W(52). VHH of one clone (V(H)H17) neutralized the SNAP25 hydrolytic activity of BoTxA/LC, whereas mouse polyclonal anti-BoTxA/LC did not have such activity. Mimotope sequences of V(H)H17 matched with the 194-206 amino acid residues of BoTxA/LC, which are located near the S'1 subsite of the catalytic cleft of the enzyme. Molecular docking revealed that CDR3 of the V(H)H17 bound to epitope in the toxin enzymatic cleft. Therefore, the BoTxA/LC neutralization by the V(H)H17 should be due to the VHH insertion into the enzymatic cleft of the toxin, which is usually inaccessible to a conventional antibody molecule. This antibody fragment warrants further development as a therapeutic agent for botulism.
ISSN: 0021-9258
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.073163

Record 137 of 726
Author(s): Pitsawong, W (Pitsawong, Warintra); Sucharitakul, J (Sucharitakul, Jeerus); Prongjit, M (Prongjit, Methinee); Tan, TC (Tan, Tien-Chye); Spadiut, O (Spadiut, Oliver); Haltrich, D (Haltrich, Dietmar); Divne, C (Divne, Christina); Chaiyen, P (Chaiyen, Pimchai)
Title: A Conserved Active-site Threonine Is Important for Both Sugar and Flavin Oxidations of Pyranose 2-Oxidase
Source: JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 285 (13): 9697-9705 MAR 26 2010
Abstract: Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) catalyzes the oxidation by O-2 of D-glucose and several aldopyranoses to yield the 2-ketoaldoses and H2O2. Based on crystal structures, in one rotamer conformation, the threonine hydroxyl of Thr(169) forms H-bonds to the flavin-N5/O4 locus, whereas, in a different rotamer, it may interact with either sugar or other parts of the P2O center dot sugar complex. Transient kinetics of wild-type (WT) and Thr(169)-> S/N/G/A replacement variants show that D-Glc binds to T169S, T169N, and WT with the same K-d (45-47 mM), and the hydride transfer rate constants (k(red)) are similar (15.3-9.7 s(-1) at 4 degrees C). k(red) of T169G with D-glucose (0.7 s(-1), 4 degrees C) is significantly less than that of WT but not as severely affected as in T169A (k(red) of 0.03 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). Transient kinetics of WT and mutants using D-galactose show that P2O binds D-galactose with a one-step binding process, different from binding of D- glucose. In T169S, T169N, and T169G, the overall turnover with D- Gal is faster than that of WT due to an increase of kred. In the crystal structure of T169S, Ser(169) O gamma assumes a position identical to that of O gamma 1 in Thr(169); in T169G, solvent molecules may be able to rescue H-bonding. Our data suggest that a competent reductive half-reaction requires a side chain at position 169 that is able to form an H-bond within the ES complex. During the oxidative half-reaction, all mutants failed to stabilize a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate, thus suggesting that the precise position and geometry of the Thr(169) side chain are required for intermediate stabilization.
ISSN: 0021-9258
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.073247

Record 138 of 726
Author(s): Ponpuak, M (Ponpuak, Marisa); Davis, AS (Davis, Alexander S.); Roberts, EA (Roberts, Esteban A.); Delgado, MA (Delgado, Monica A.); Dinkins, C (Dinkins, Christina); Zhao, ZJ (Zhao, Zijiang); Virgin, HW (Virgin, Herbert W.); Kyei, GB (Kyei, George B.); Johansen, T (Johansen, Terje); Vergne, I (Vergne, Isabelle); Deretic, V (Deretic, Vojo)
Title: Delivery of Cytosolic Components by Autophagic Adaptor Protein p62 Endows Autophagosomes with Unique Antimicrobial Properties
Source: IMMUNITY, 32 (3): 329-341 MAR 26 2010
Abstract: Autophagy allows cells to self-digest portions of their own cytoplasm for a multitude of physiological purposes, including innate and adaptive immunity functions. In one of its innate immunity manifestations, autophagy, is known to contribute to the killing of intracellular microbes, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although the molecular mechanisms have been unclear. Here, we delineated sequential steps of the autophagic pathway necessary to control intracellular M. tuberculosis and found that in addition to autophagy initiation and maturation, an accessory autophagy-targeting molecule p62 (A170 or SQSTM1) was required for mycobactericidal activity. The p62 adaptor protein delivered specific ribosomal and bulk ubiquitinated cytosolic proteins to autolysosomes where they were proteolytically converted into products capable of killing M. tuberculosis. Thus, p62 brings cytosolic proteins to autolysosomes where they are processed from innocuous precursors into neo-antimicrobial peptides, explaining in part the unique bactericidal properties of autophagic organelles.
ISSN: 1074-7613
DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.02.009

Record 139 of 726
Author(s): Arndt, SS (Arndt, Saskia S.); Lohavech, D (Lohavech, Dissaya); van't Klooster, J (van't Klooster, Jose); Ohl, F (Ohl, Frauke)
Title: Co-species housing in mice and rats: Effects on physiological and behavioral stress responsivity
Source: HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR, 57 (3): 342-351 MAR 2010
Abstract: Co-species housing of mice and rats is common practice at most breeding facilities and research laboratories, neglecting the possible effects on the animals. We investigated physiological as well as behavioral stress-reactivity in mice and rats which were either derived from a co-species or species-separated housing condition at the breeding facilities. The animals were kept under the housing condition they were used to or assigned to the opposite one. Co-species housing had a significant impact on acute stress reactivity in mice and rats but only if they were used to this housing condition throughout their lives. Moreover, the stress-effects appeared to be long lasting. Assigning animals, derived from a species-separated housing condition, to co-species housing led to chronic stress in mice and affected experimental behavior of rats.
Our findings led to the conclusion that co-species housing in mice and rats should be avoided, supporting the recommendations by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (VWS). In order to support the interpretation, facilitate the reproducibility and comparability and subsequently the generalizability of experimental results, breeding facilities should at least provide detailed information about their housing conditions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0018-506X
DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.01.003

Record 140 of 726
Author(s): Jindadamrongwech, S (Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee); Tungbuppha, N (Tungbuppha, Noppawan); Chuncharunee, S (Chuncharunee, Suporn); Butthep, P (Butthep, Punnee)
Title: Hb Tak and Hb Q-Thailand in Thai Patients are S-Window Hemoglobin Variants Revealed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Source: HEMOGLOBIN, 34 (2): 161-164 2010
Abstract: The S-window hemoglobin (Hb) variants revealed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were studied in 12 Thai individuals. The variants were identified, using DNA sequencing and multiplex amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR), to be six cases of Hb Tak [beta 147 (+AC)], and six cases of Hb Q-Thailand [alpha 74(EF3)Asp -> His], respectively. By using the Capillarys 2-capillary zone electrophoresis (CE), Hb Tak and Hb Q-Thailand co-migrated with Hb F in zone 7. This might pose a problem as the high Hb F conditions suggest a differential diagnosis. The S-window Hb variants are mostly Hb Tak and Hb Q-Thailand in the Thai population rather than Hb S [beta 6(A3)Glu -> Val]. The definite identification of Hb variants detected by HPLC or capillary electrophoresis (CE) requires DNA analysis.</.
ISSN: 0363-0269
DOI: 10.3109/03630261003679631

Record 141 of 726
Author(s): Snabboon, T (Snabboon, Thiti); Plengpanich, W (Plengpanich, Wanee); Houngngam, N (Houngngam, Natnicha); Buranasupkajorn, P (Buranasupkajorn, Patinut); Plengvidhya, N (Plengvidhya, Nattachet); Sereepapong, W (Sereepapong, Wisan); Sunthornyothin, S (Sunthornyothin, Sarat); Shotelersuk, V (Shotelersuk, Vorasuk)
Title: Concurrent bilateral pheochromocytoma and thoracic paraganglioma during pregnancy
Source: ENDOCRINE, 37 (2): 261-264 APR 2010
Abstract: Although hypertension occurring during pregnancies is not uncommon and its prognosis is generally excellent, some of its unusual causes can lead to catastrophic consequences, especially in undiagnosed cases. Here, we report a pregnant woman who presented with hypertension in her early pregnancy. It was subsequently found to be caused by bilateral pheochromocytoma. After removal of both tumors, catecholamine levels unexpectedly and unexplainably remained elevated. At 23 weeks of gestation, the fetus was found dead in utero. After the fetal death, additional studies were performed and revealed a thoracic paraganglioma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of three catecholamine-producing tumors occurring concurrently during a pregnancy. Genetic analysis helped identify this unprecedented condition; the patient harbored a heterozygous missense mutation c.482G > A in exon 3 of the VHL gene, indicating von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Physicians who care for hypertensive pregnant patients should be aware of this condition as its diagnosis would probably lead to a better outcome.
ISSN: 0969-711X
DOI: 10.1007/s12020-009-9292-x

Record 142 of 726
Author(s): Kanlayanaphotporn, R (Kanlayanaphotporn, Rotsalai); Chiradejnant, A (Chiradejnant, Adit); Vachalathiti, R (Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa)
Title: Immediate effects of the central posteroanterior mobilization technique on pain and range of motion in patients with mechanical neck pain
Source: DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION, 32 (8): 622-628 2010
Abstract: Purpose. To determine the immediate effects of the central posteroanterior (PA) mobilization technique on both pain and active cervical range of motion in patients with mechanical neck pain presenting with central or bilateral symptoms.
Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 60 patients who were randomly allocated into either 'central PA' or 'random' mobilization group. Two physical therapists and one assessor participated. Outcome measures included neck pain at rest, pain on the most painful movement, and active cervical range of motion taken before and immediately 5 min after the mobilization treatment.
Results. Significant reductions in pain at rest and on the most painful movement were noted within-group comparisons (p < 0.001). However, the 'central PA' mobilization group obtained a significantly greater reduction in pain on the most painful movement than the 'random' mobilization group (p < 0.05). Both mobilization techniques had no effects on the active cervical range of motion. However, the differences in the means of pain reduction between both mobilization techniques were modest (<10 mm).
Conclusion. The clinical recommendation regarding the selection of the central PA mobilization technique for treating patients with central or bilateral mechanical neck pain is therefore arguably.
ISSN: 0963-8288
DOI: 10.3109/09638280903204716

Record 143 of 726
Author(s): Hamann, CR (Hamann, Carsten R.); Hamann, DJ (Hamann, Dathan J.); Hamann, QJ (Hamann, Quinlan J.); Hamann, CP (Hamann, Curtis P.); Boonchai, W (Boonchai, Waranya); Li, LF (Li, Lin-Feng); Thyssen, JP (Thyssen, Jacob P.)
Title: Assessment of nickel release from earrings randomly purchased in China and Thailand using the dimethylglyoxime test
Source: CONTACT DERMATITIS, 62 (4): 232-240 2010
Abstract: Background: China and Thailand produce large amounts of jewellery that are sold domestically and abroad.
Objective: To identify nickel release and metal content in earrings purchased in China and Thailand.
Methods: A total of 557 earrings were randomly purchased from vendors in 11 markets located in Beijing, Chengdu, Bangkok, Patong Beach, and Hat Yai. Earrings were subjected to dimethylglyoxime (DMG) tests and 26 of the DMG negative earrings were further evaluated qualitatively for major and minor metal content using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.
Results: A total of 314 Chinese earrings (31.5%) and 243 Thai earrings (29.2%) were DMG test positive. Three (11.5%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a major component; 7 (26.9%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a minor component.
Discussion: Excessive nickel release was frequent. This may contribute to the high prevalence of nickel allergy in both countries. Increased public education together with the adoption of a regulatory intervention in Thailand may be warranted. In China, enforcement of the 2002 Chinese National Standard GB 11887 may assist in reducing sensitization. These initiatives may eventually result in decreased morbidity among the Chinese and Thai citizens, but can potentially benefit recipient countries of these important earring producing countries.
ISSN: 0105-1873

Record 144 of 726
Author(s): Chulavatnatol, S (Chulavatnatol, Suvatna); Malathum, K (Malathum, Kumthorn); Kiertiburanakul, S (Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin); Sripha, K (Sripha, Kittisak); Lawanprasert, P (Lawanprasert, Pojawon)
Title: Bioequivalence of indinavir capsules in healthy volunteers
Source: ASIAN BIOMEDICINE, 4 (1): 95-101 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: Indinavir, one component in the HAART regimen, plays an important role in the current treatment of HIV-infection and AIDS. Availability and accessibility of qualified generic indinavir to patients may be the keys for the success of treatment.
Objective: Compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic indinavir formulation with those of an original formulation in healthy Thai volunteers.
Method: A randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover study with a two-week washout period was performed. A single dose of 2x400 mg indinavir capsules of each formulation was administered to 24 volunteers after an overnight fast. Indinavir plasma concentrations up to 10 hours postdose were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were derived and tested for statistically significant differences using ANOVA and criteria of bioequivalence determination were applied.
Results: No statistically significant differences were demonstrated for pharmacokinetic parameters including C-max, T-max, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) derived from the two formulations (n=23, p>0.05). The criteria of bioequivalence determination i.e., the 90% confidence intervals on the mean ratio (generic/original formulation) of natural logarithm-transformed values of C-max, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) were 86.3-106.5%, 94.0-108.5%, and 93.9-108.5%, respectively.
Conclusion: As the mean ratios of C-max, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) of the generic and original formulations were entirely within the guideline range of bioequivalence (80.0-125.0%), the two formulations were considered bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption.
ISSN: 1905-7415

Record 145 of 726
Author(s): Pongkumpai, M (Pongkumpai, Montri); Trakulsomboon, S (Trakulsomboon, Suwanna); Suankratay, C (Suankratay, Chusana)
Title: An evaluation of 2.0 McFarland Etest method for detection of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus
Source: ASIAN BIOMEDICINE, 4 (1): 141-145 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin or heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) have become increasingly reported from various parts of the world. hVISA cannot be detected by routine test for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin. The gold standard method for detection, population analysis profiles (PAP) method, is complicated, time-consuming, expensive, and needs well-trained microbiologists.
Objective: Evaluate of 2.0 McFarland Etest method, in comparison with the PAP method, for detection of hVISA in clinical specimens.
Methods: All methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains from clinical specimens isolated from consecutive patients attended at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok between 2006 and 2007 were studied. 1 hundred nineteen specimens were obtained. The PAP method detected six hVISA strains 5 from blood and from cultures) from four patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, accounting for a prevalence of 6.35%. The MIC determined by agar dilution method was in the range of 2-3 mu g/mL.
Results: 2.0 McFarland Etest method detected no false positive and five false negatives (42%), and gave a sensitivity and a specificity of 16.7% and 100%, respectively. The one-point population analysis screening method detected two false positives and 1 false negative, and gave a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity and 98.2%.
Conclusion: The 2.0 McFarland Etest method had a very good specificity but a poor sensitivity for detecting hVISA. It may be used as an alternative method to confirm detection of hVISA.
ISSN: 1905-7415

Record 146 of 726
Author(s): Tirakunwichcha, S (Tirakunwichcha, Suppapong); Rengwanidchakul, E (Rengwanidchakul, Ehwika); Asawaphureekorn, S (Asawaphureekorn, Somkiat); Tengtrisorn, S (Tengtrisorn, Supaporn); Juangphanich, K (Juangphanich, Khanchai); Suramethakul, P (Suramethakul, Pitipong); Pornpanich, K (Pornpanich, Kanokrat)
Title: Incidence of acquired lacrimal drainage system obstruction in epiphoric patients in Thailand
Source: ASIAN BIOMEDICINE, 4 (1): 159-162 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: There were few reports regarding the incidence of the acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, and the incidence in different geography or countries might be alike. Since the nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction is a common problem in Thailand, knowledge of the incidence may disclose the burden of the disease that has never been reported.
Objectives: Evaluate the incidence of acquired lacrimal drainage system obstruction (ALDO) in Thailand.
Methods: This study was conducted in multi-centers. It was based on prospective and descriptive design. All patients with epiphoric symptoms visiting the outpatient departments of five tertiary eyecare centers were recruited between 2004 and 2007. Features of epiphoric symptoms and medical history were recorded, and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed.
Results: Epiphoric patients were enrolled from all medical centers with 245 eligible patients, female:male ratio was 4.2:1. Ninety-nine patients (40%) had duration of epiphoric symptoms between one-five years. ALDO was found in 111 patients (45%) with female preponderance (6.9:1). Seventy-one patients (64%) had pre-sac obstruction and 40 patients (36%) had post-sac obstruction. Among other causes of epiphora, dry eye was the most common.
Conclusion: The most common cause of epiphora was ALDO. The four-year incidence rate of ALDO among epiphoric patients was 45%.
ISSN: 1905-7415

Record 147 of 726
Author(s): Treepongkaruna, S (Treepongkaruna, Suporn); Pienvichit, P (Pienvichit, Paneeya); Phuapradit, P (Phuapradit, Pornpimon); Kodcharin, P (Kodcharin, Porawee); Wattanasirichaigoon, D (Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee)
Title: Mutations of ATP7B gene in two Thai siblings with Wilson disease
Source: ASIAN BIOMEDICINE, 4 (1): 163-169 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7B gene.
Objective: Report the clinical data and mutation analysis of two Thai siblings suspected of WD.
Subject and methods: A 13-year-old boy who presented with cirrhosis, arthralgia, hypoalbuminemia, and coagulopathy, and his 11-year-old sister who was asymptomatic but had hepatomegaly with elevation of transaminases, were studied. Mutation analysis of ATP7B gene and mRNA analysis was performed in both patients and their parents.
Results: Investigations were consistent with WD, and their liver diseases improved after standard treatment for WD. DNA analyses in these two patients revealed two novel mutations, which were a deletion of the first 2bp of exon 6 (c.1870_1871delGA), and a single base substitution from A to G at nucleotide 4075 (c.4075A>G) in the exon 20 (p.M1359V). PCR-restriction digestion with Ncol restriction enzyme was employed as the second method for confirmation of the c.4075A>G mutation and for rapid screening in 100 chromosomes from unrelated healthy controls, and this variant was not present in the controls. The c.1870_1871delGA deletion caused a frameshift effect, which results in a premature stop codon (p.E624fsX753), and the p.M1359V mutation is a substitution of methionine with valine, which may have effects upon its orientation and interaction with other adjacent amino acids.
Conclusion: Two novel mutations of ATP7B gene were identified in two Thai siblings with WD.
ISSN: 1905-7415

Record 148 of 726
Author(s): Kruevaisayawan, H (Kruevaisayawan, Hathairat); Vanichviriyakit, R (Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun); Weerachatyanukul, W (Weerachatyanukul, Wattana); Withyachumnarnkul, B (Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm); Chavadej, J (Chavadej, Jittipan); Sobhon, P (Sobhon, Prasert)
Title: Oogenesis and formation of cortical rods in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon
Source: AQUACULTURE, 301 (1-4): 91-98 MAR 23 2010
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate morphological changes of developing oocytes during oogenesis in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon as well as elucidate the cellular pathway for the formation of cortical rods, the egg jelly precursor. The differentiating female germ cells in the mature ovary were divided into four stages (Oc(1-4)) based on the changes in ultrastructural characteristics. The prominent features in the developing oocytes (Oc(1) Oc(2) Oc(3)) were the abundance of ribosomes and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in Oc(1) and Oc(2) and the presence of yolk granules and lipid droplets in Oc(3) all indicating active synthesis of protein and lipid components. The main characteristic of the mature oocyte (Oc(4)) was the presence of cortical rods (CRs) which were composed of the tightly packed structural units each resembling a bottle-brush. Immunostaining of cortical rod proteins which were part of the structural units indicated that they were first synthesized in the RER-Golgi complex of Oc(2) and transported into the extracellular crypts of the mature oocyte (Oc(4)) where they were assembled into CRs. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0044-8486
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.01.018

Record 149 of 726
Author(s): Pukrittayakamee, S (Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon); Imwong, M (Imwong, Mallika); Chotivanich, K (Chotivanich, Kesinee); Singhasivanon, P (Singhasivanon, Pratap); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.)
Title: A Comparison of Two Short-Course Primaquine Regimens for the Treatment and Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Thailand
Abstract: Thai adult males (N = 85) with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria and normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase screening were randomized to receive 30 mg or 60 mg primaquine daily for 7 days (N = 43 and 42, respectively). The regimens were well tolerated and all patients recovered fully. Median fever clearance (47 hours; range 4 to 130 hours), mean +/- SD parasite clearance times (87.7 +/- 25.3 hours), gametocyte clearance, and adverse effects were similar in the 2 groups. Two patients, 1 from each group, had a 30% reduction in hematocrit. The cumulative 28 day relapse rate (95% confidence interval) by Kaplan Meier survival analysis was 29% (16-49%) in the 30 mg group compared with 7% (2-24%) in the 60 mg group; P = 0.027. Comparison with previous data obtained at this same site suggests that the recurrences comprised approximately 17% recrudescences and 12% relapses in the 30 mg/day group compared with 3% recrudescences and 4% relapses in the 60 mg/day group. These data suggest that the dose-response relationships for primaquine's asexual stage and hypnozoitocidal activities in-vivo are different. A I week course of primaquine 60 mg daily is an effective treatment of vivax malaria in this region.
ISSN: 0002-9637
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0428

Record 150 of 726
Author(s): Baowan, D (Baowan, Duangkamon); Cox, BJ (Cox, Barry J.); Hill, JM (Hill, James M.)
Title: Dislodgement of carbon nanotube bundles under pressure driven flow
Source: NANOTECHNOLOGY, 21 (15): Art. No. 155305 APR 16 2010
Abstract: Experimental and predicted flow rates through carbon nanotubes vary considerably but generally are reported to be well in excess of that predicted by the conventional Poiseuille flow, and therefore nanotubes embedded in a matrix might provide membranes with exceptional mass transport properties. In this paper, applied mathematical modelling is undertaken to estimate the three forces acting on a nanotube bundle, namely the molecular interaction force, the viscous force, and the static pressure force. In deducing estimates of these forces we introduce a modification of the notion of the effective dead area for a carbon nanotube membrane, and we calculate the total forces necessary to push one or more of the nanotubes out of the bundle, thus creating a channel through which further enhancement of flow may take place. However, careful analysis shows that the nett dislodgement force is entirely independent on the useable flow area, but rather depends only on the total cross-sectional area perpendicular to the flow. This rather surprising result is a consequence of the flow being steady and a balance of the viscous and pressure forces.
ISSN: 0957-4484
Article Number: 155305
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/21/15/155305

Record 151 of 726
Author(s): Ungsupravate, D (Ungsupravate, Duangporn); Sawasdee, N (Sawasdee, Nunghathai); Khositseth, S (Khositseth, Sookkasem); Udomchaiprasertkul, W (Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee); Khoprasert, S (Khoprasert, Siri); Li, J (Li, Jing); Reithmeier, RAF (Reithmeier, Reinhart A. F.); Yenchitsomanus, PT (Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai)
Title: Impaired trafficking and intracellular retention of mutant kidney anion exchanger 1 proteins (G701D and A858D) associated with distal renal tubular acidosis
Source: MOLECULAR MEMBRANE BIOLOGY, 27 (2-3): 92-103 APR 2010
Abstract: Novel compound heterozygous mutations, G701D, a recessive mutation, and A858D, a mild dominant mutation, of human solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 1 (SLC4A1) were identified in two pediatric patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To examine the interaction, trafficking, and cellular localization of the wild-type and two mutant kidney AE1 (kAE1) proteins, we expressed the proteins alone or together in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. In individual expressions, wild-type kAE1 was localized at the cell surface of HEK 293T and the basolateral membrane of MDCK cells. In contrast, kAE1 G701D was mainly retained intracellularly, while kAE1 A858D was observed intracellularly and at the cell surface. In co-expression experiments, wild-type kAE1 formed heterodimers with kAE1 G701D and kAE1 A858D, and promoted the cell surface expression of the mutant proteins. The co-expressed kAE1 G701D and A858D could also form heterodimers but showed predominant intracellular retention in HEK 293T and MDCK cells. Thus impaired trafficking of the kAE1 G701D and A858D mutants would lead to a profound decrease in functional kAE1 at the basolateral membrane of alpha-intercalated cells in the distal nephron of the patients with dRTA.
ISSN: 0968-7688
DOI: 10.3109/09687681003588020

Record 152 of 726
Author(s): Sataloff, RT (Sataloff, Robert T.); Praneetvatakul, P (Praneetvatakul, Phurich); Heuer, RJ (Heuer, Reinhardt J.); Hawkshaw, MJ (Hawkshaw, Mary J.); Heman-Ackah, YD (Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D.); Schneider, SM (Schneider, Sarah Marx); Mandel, S (Mandel, Steven)
Title: Laryngeal Electromyography: Clinical Application
Source: JOURNAL OF VOICE, 24 (2): 228-234 MAR 2010
Abstract: Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is a valuable adjunct in clinical management of patients with voice disorders. LEMG is valuable in differentiating vocal fold paresis/paralysis from cricoarytenoid joint fixation. Our data indicate that visual assessment alone is inadequate to diagnose neuromuscular dysfunction in the larynx and that diagnoses based on vocal dynamics assessment and strobovideolaryngoscopy are wrong in nearly one-third of cases, based on LEMG results. LEMG has also proven valuable in diagnosing neuromuscular dysfunction in some dysphonic patients with no obvious vocal fold movement abnormalities observed during strobovideolaryngoscopy. Review of 751 patients suggests that there is a correlation between the severity of paresis and treatment required to achieve satisfactory outcomes; that is, LEMG allows us to predict whether patients will probably require therapy alone or therapy combined with surgery. Additional evidence-based research should be encouraged to evaluate efficacy further.
ISSN: 0892-1997
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2008.08.005

Record 153 of 726
Author(s): Atichartpongkul, S (Atichartpongkul, Sopapan); Fuangthong, M (Fuangthong, Mayuree); Vattanaviboon, P (Vattanaviboon, Paiboon); Mongkolsuk, S (Mongkolsuk, Skorn)
Title: Analyses of the Regulatory Mechanism and Physiological Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa OhrR, a Transcription Regulator and a Sensor of Organic Hydroperoxides
Source: JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 192 (8): 2093-2101 APR 15 2010
Abstract: ohrR encodes an organic hydroperoxide sensor and a transcriptional repressor that regulates organic hydroperoxide-inducible expression of a thiol peroxidase gene, ohr, and itself. OhrR binds directly to the operators and represses transcription of these genes. Exposure to an organic hydroperoxide leads to oxidation of OhrR and to subsequent structural changes that result in the loss of the repressor's ability to bind to the operators that allow expression of the target genes. Differential induction of ohrR and ohr by tert-butyl hydroperoxide suggests that factors such as the repressor's dissociation constants for different operators and the chemical nature of the inducer contribute to OhrR-dependent organic hydroperoxide-inducible gene expression. ohrR and ohr mutants show increased and decreased resistance to organic hydroproxides, respectively, compared to a parental strain. Moreover, the ohrR mutant had a reduced-virulence phenotype in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenicity model.
ISSN: 0021-9193
DOI: 10.1128/JB.01510-09

Record 154 of 726
Author(s): Brouwer, AE (Brouwer, Annemarie E.); Teparrukkul, P (Teparrukkul, Praprit); Rajanuwong, A (Rajanuwong, Adul); Chierakul, W (Chierakul, Wirongrong); Mahavanakul, W (Mahavanakul, Weera); Chantratita, W (Chantratita, Wasun); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.); Harrison, TS (Harrison, Thomas S.)
Title: Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV-1 Viral Load During Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis
ISSN: 1525-4135
DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181ba489a

Record 155 of 726
Author(s): Krittayaphong, R (Krittayaphong, Rungroj); Boonyasirinant, T (Boonyasirinant, Thananya); Chaithiraphan, V (Chaithiraphan, Vithaya); Maneesai, A (Maneesai, Adisak); Saiviroonporn, P (Saiviroonporn, Pairash); Nakyen, S (Nakyen, Supaporn); Thanapiboonpol, P (Thanapiboonpol, Prajak); Yindeengam, A (Yindeengam, Ahthit); Udompanturak, S (Udompanturak, Suthipol)
Title: Prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement in hypertensive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease
Abstract: To determine the prognosis of a myocardial scar assessed by a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in hypertensive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with systemic hypertension with known or suspected CAD without a clinical history of myocardial infarction were enrolled. All patients underwent CMR for assessment of cardiac function and LGE. Prognostic data was determined by the occurrence of a hard cardiac endpoint, defined as cardiac death or a non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), defined as cardiac death, a non-fatal myocardial infarction, or hospitalization due to heart failure, unstable angina, or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. A total of 1,644 patients were enrolled; 48% were males and the mean age was 65 +/- 11 years. The average follow-up time was 863 +/- 559 days. Four hundred fifty-three (28%) patients had LGE. LGE was the strongest and most independent predictor for hard events and MACEs with hazard ratios of 4.77 and 3.38, respectively. Other independent predictors of hard events and MACEs were left ventricular ejection fraction and mass, the use of a beta-blocker, and a history of heart failure. The risk of cardiac events increased as the extent of LGE increased; the hazard ratio was 12.74 for hard events for those with a LGE >20% of the myocardium. LGE is the most important and independent predictor for cardiac events in hypertensive patients with known or suspected CAD.
ISSN: 1569-5794
DOI: 10.1007/s10554-009-9574-7

Record 156 of 726
Author(s): Manguin, S (Manguin, S.); Bangs, MJ (Bangs, M. J.); Pothikasikorn, J (Pothikasikorn, J.); Chareonviriyaphap, T (Chareonviriyaphap, T.)
Title: Review on global co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes
Source: INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION, 10 (2): 159-177 MAR 2010
Abstract: Malaria and lymphatic filariasis are two of the most common mosquito-borne parasitic diseases worldwide which can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. This review presents the most recent available information on the co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes. Important biological and epidemiological aspects are also described including the lifecycle of each parasite species and their specificities, the geographical biodiversity of each pathogen and their vectors where the parasites are co-endemic, and biological, environmental and climatic determinants influencing transmission. The co-transmission of each disease is illustrated from both a global perspective and a country level using Thailand as a study case. Different diagnostic methods are provided for the detection of the parasites in biological samples ranging from traditional to more recent molecular methods, including methodologies employing concomitant detection assays of W. bancrofti and Plasmodium spp. parasites. The relevant issues of combined malaria and Bancroftian filariasis control strategies are reviewed and discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1567-1348
DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.11.014

Record 157 of 726
Author(s): Henry, A (Henry, A.); Thongsripong, P (Thongsripong, P.); Fonseca-Gonzalez, I (Fonseca-Gonzalez, I.); Jaramillo-Ocampo, N (Jaramillo-Ocampo, N.); Dujardin, JP (Dujardin, Jean-Pierre)
Title: Wing shape of dengue vectors from around the world.
Source: INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION, 10 (2): 207-214 MAR 2010
Abstract: Wing shape is increasingly utilized in species identification and characterization. For dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, it could be used as a complement for ensuring accurate diagnostic of damaged specimens. However, the impact of world migration on wing shape is unknown. Has the spread of these invasive species increased shape variation to the extent of producing interspecific overlapping? To answer this question, the geometric patterns of wing venation in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were compared between natural populations from the Pacific Islands, North and South America and South East Asia. The geometry of 178 female and 174 male wings were described at 13 anatomical landmarks, and processed according to Procrustes superposition, partial warps and subsequent multivariate analyzes. The variation of shape did not produce significant interspecific overlapping. Regardless of geographic origin, Ae. aegypti was recognized as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus as Ae. albopictus. Some significant geographic differentiation was observed in Colombia for Ae. aegypti and in Thailand for Ae. albopictus. Globally, the morphology of these mosquitoes, for both size and shape, appeared well preserved. Strong canalizing mechanisms could account for the observed patterns of relatively uniform morphology, which could also be attributed to sporadic, recurrent mixing of populations, thwarting phenotypic drift. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1567-1348
DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.12.001

Record 158 of 726
Author(s): Bouyer, J (Bouyer, Jeremy); Ravel, S (Ravel, Sophie); Guerrini, L (Guerrini, Laure); Dujardin, JP (Dujardin, Jean-Pierre); Sidibe, I (Sidibe, Issa); Vreysen, MJB (Vreysen, Marc J. B.); Solano, P (Solano, Philippe); De Meeus, T (De Meeus, Thierry)
Title: Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: Consequences for area-wide integrated pest management
Source: INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION, 10 (2): 321-328 MAR 2010
Abstract: African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoe and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoe Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoe River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F-ST = 0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoe, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1567-1348
DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.12.009

Record 159 of 726
Author(s): Chanplakorn, N (Chanplakorn, Niramol); Chanplakorn, P (Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn); Suzuki, T (Suzuki, Takashi); Ono, K (Ono, Katsuhiko); Chan, MSM (Chan, Monica S. M.); Miki, Y (Miki, Yasuhiro); Saji, S (Saji, Shigetoyo); Ueno, T (Ueno, Takayuki); Toi, M (Toi, Masakazu); Sasano, H (Sasano, Hironobu)
Title: Increased estrogen sulfatase (STS) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1(17 beta-HSD1) following neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy in breast cancer patients
Abstract: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are considered the gold standard for endocrine therapy of estrogen receptor (ER) positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The therapy may enhance therapeutic response and stabilize disease but resistance and disease progression inevitably occur in the patients. These are considered at least partly due to an emergence of alternative intratumoral estrogen production pathways. Therefore, in this study we evaluated effects of exemestane (EXE) upon the enzymes involved in intratumoral estrogen production including estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17 beta-HSD1), and estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and correlated the findings with therapeutic responses including Ki67 labeling index (Ki67). 116 postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, stage II/IIIa, were enrolled in JFMC34-0601 clinical trials between March, 2006 and January, 2008. EXE of 25 mg/day was administered according to the protocol. Pre- and posttreatment specimens of 49 cases were available for this study. Status of STS, EST, 17 beta-HSD1, ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2), and Ki67 in pre- and post-specimens were evaluated. Specimens examined before the therapy demonstrated following features; ER+ (100%), PgR+ (85.7%), and Her2+ (77.6%). After treatment, the number of Ki67, PgR, and ER positive carcinoma cells demonstrated significant decrement in clinical response (CliR) and pathological response (PaR) groups. Significant increment of 17 beta-HSD1 and STS immunoreactivity was detected in all groups examined except for STS in PaR. EST showed significant increment in nonresponsive groups. Alterations of Ki67 of carcinoma cells before and after therapy were subclassified into three groups according to its degrees. Significant alterations of intratumoral enzymes, especially 17 beta-HSD1 and STS, were correlated with Ki67 reduction after neoadjuvant EXE therapy. This is the first study demonstrating significant increment of STS and 17 beta-HSD1 following AI neoadjuvant therapy of postmenopausal ER positive breast carcinoma patients. This increment may represent the compensatory response of breast carcinoma tissues to estrogen depletion.
ISSN: 0167-6806
DOI: 10.1007/s10549-010-0785-3

Record 160 of 726
Author(s): Kaewsuwan, S (Kaewsuwan, Songsri); Bunyapraphatsara, N (Bunyapraphatsara, Nantavan); Cove, DJ (Cove, David J.); Quatrano, RS (Quatrano, Ralph S.); Chodok, P (Chodok, Pichit)
Title: High level production of adrenic acid in Physcomitrella patens using the algae Pavlova sp Delta(5)-elongase gene
Source: BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 101 (11): 4081-4088 JUN 2010
Abstract: Adrenic acid (ADA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), has attracted much interest due to its pharmaceutical potential. Exploiting the wealth of information currently available on in planta oil biosynthesis, and coupling this information with the tool of genetic engineering, it is now feasible to deliberately alter fatty acid biosynthetic pathways to generate unique oils in commodity crops. In this study, a Delta(5)-elongase gene from the algae Pavlova sp. related to the biosynthesis of C-22 PUFAs was targeted to enable production of ADA in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Heterologous expression of this gene was under the control of a tandemly duplicate 355 promoter. It was established that ADA (0.42 mg/l) was synthesized in P. patens from endogenous arachidonic acid (ARA) via the expressed Pavlova sp. Delta(5)-elongase in the moss. In an attempt to maximize ADA production, medium optimization was effected by the response surface methodology (RSM), resulting in a significant elevation of ADA (4.51 mg/l) production under optimum conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the expression of a PUFA synthesizing enzyme in non-seed lower plant without supplying the exogenous fatty acid. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0960-8524
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.138

Record 161 of 726
Author(s): Chu, C (Chu, Carmen); Woods, N (Woods, Naomi); Sawasdee, N (Sawasdee, Nunghathai); Guizouarn, H (Guizouarn, Helene); Pellissier, B (Pellissier, Bernard); Borgese, F (Borgese, Franck); Yenchitsomanus, PT (Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai); Gowrishankar, M (Gowrishankar, Manjula); Cordat, E (Cordat, Emmanuelle)
Title: Band 3 Edmonton I, a novel mutant of the anion exchanger 1 causing spherocytosis and distal renal tubular acidosis
Source: BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 426: 379-388 Part 3 MAR 15 2010
Abstract: dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis) and HS (hereditary spherocytosis) are two diseases that call be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the AE1 (anion exchanger I; Band 3). dRTA is characterized by defective Urinary acidification, leading to metabolic acidosis, renal stories and failure to thrive. HS results in anaemia, which may require regular blood transfusions and splenectomy. Mutations in the gene encoding AE1 rarely cause both HS and dRTA. the present paper, we describe a novel AE1 mutation, Band 3 Edmonton 1, which causes dominant HS and recessive dRTA. The patient is a compound heterozygote with the new mutation C479W and the previously described mutation G701D. Red blood cells from the patient presented a reduced amount of AE1. Expression in a kidney cell line showed that kAE1 (kidney AE1) C479W is retained intracellullarly. As kAE1 is a dimer. we performed co-expression studies and found that, in kidney cells, kAE1 C479W and G701D proteins traffic independently from each other despite their ability to form heterodimers. Therefore the patient carries one kAE1 mutant that is retained in the Golgi (G701D) and another mutant (C479W) located in the endoplasmic reticulum of kidney cells, and is thus probably unable to reabsorb bicarbonate into the blood. We conclude that the C479W mutant is a novel trafficking mutant of AE1, which causes HS due to a decreased cell-surface AE1 protein and results in dRTA due to its intracellular retention in kidney.
ISSN: 0264-6021
DOI: 10.1042/BJ20091525

Record 162 of 726
Author(s): Thonpho, A (Thonpho, Ansaya); Sereeruk, C (Sereeruk, Chutima); Rojvirat, P (Rojvirat, Pinnara); Jitrapakdee, S (Jitrapakdee, Sarawut)
Title: Identification of the cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) that mediates transcriptional regulation of the pyruvate carboxylase gene in HepG2 cells
Abstract: Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the first committed step in gluconeogenesis. Here we investigated the effect of various hormones including cAMP, dexamethasone and insulin on the abundance of PC mRNA in the human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 1 mu M of glucagon increased the expression of PC mRNA threefold within 72 h. Treatment with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP caused the abundance of PC mRNA to increase by 2-3-fold by 48 h, peak at fourfold at 72 h, and remain unchanged to 96 h. This is in contrast to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for which expression was decreased after 72 h, suggesting a distinct difference in the control of these two enzymes in the long term. Dexamethasone or insulin alone did not affect the abundance of PC mRNA whereas treatment of HepG2 cells with the combination of 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP and 0.5 mu M dexamethasone further increased the abundance of PC mRNA, suggesting the predominant role of 8-Br-cAMP over dexamethasone. Transient transfection of the luciferase reporter construct driven by a 1.95 kbp 5'-flanking sequence of the mouse PC gene and a plasmid encoding the human cAMP-responsive element binding protein increased luciferase reporter activity to 7-fold similar to that observed with a PEPCK promoter-luciferase reporter construct. Deletion of the 5'-flanking region of the PC gene to 781 bp resulted in the complete loss of CREB-mediated induction of reporter gene, suggesting the presence of the cAMP-responsive unit is located between 1.95 kbp and 781 bp upstream of the mouse PC gene. Electrophoretic mobility shifted and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that CREB bind to 1639/-1631 CRE of mouse PC gene in vitro and in vivo, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0006-291X
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.02.067

Record 163 of 726
Author(s): Chearskul, S (Chearskul, Supornpim); Pummoung, S (Pummoung, Sudaporn); Vongsaiyat, S (Vongsaiyat, Siriporn); Janyachailert, P (Janyachailert, Patriya); Phattharayuttawat, S (Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera)
Title: Thai version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire
Source: APPETITE, 54 (2): 410-413 APR 2010
Abstract: The English version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was translated into the Thai language. The TFEQ Thai version shows good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. Restraint and disinhibition scores, which were higher in females than males were correlated with body fat but did not relate to BMI. Disinhibition varied positively with restraint and hunger while restraint was negatively associated with hunger. Lowest restraint was shown in the group that reported liking carbohydrate, which is a major daily macronutrient among Thai populations. TFEQ Thai version is valid for future study of eating behaviors associated with health problems and diseases. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0195-6663
DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.005

Record 164 of 726
Author(s): Sermsri, W (Sermsri, Wimut); Jarujamrus, P (Jarujamrus, Purim); Shiowatana, J (Shiowatana, Juwadee); Siripinyanond, A (Siripinyanond, Atitaya)
Title: Flow field-flow fractionation: a versatile approach for size characterization of alpha-tocopherol-induced enlargement of gold nanoparticles
Abstract: Flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) was used for size characterization of gold nanoparticles. The measured particle sizes obtained from FlFFF for the commercial 10 nm gold nanoparticle standard and the gold nanoparticles synthesized in the laboratory were in good agreement with those measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the capability of alpha-tocopherol to induce enlargement of gold nanoparticles by catalysis of the reduction of AuCl (4) (-) by citrate was observed by monitoring the changes in particle size of gold nanoparticles using FlFFF. The effects of alpha-tocopherol and incubation time on enlargement of the gold nanoparticles were examined. Higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol resulted in larger nanoparticles. At fixed alpha-tocopherol concentration, larger nanoparticles were formed at longer incubation times.
ISSN: 1618-2642
DOI: 10.1007/s00216-010-3511-4

Record 165 of 726
Author(s): Vanichapuntu, M (Vanichapuntu, Monchand); Phuekfon, P (Phuekfon, Puchaniyada); Suwannalai, P (Suwannalai, Parawee); Verasertniyom, O (Verasertniyom, Oravan); Nantiruj, K (Nantiruj, Kanokrat); Janwityanujit, S (Janwityanujit, Suchela)
Title: Are anti-citrulline autoantibodies better serum markers for rheumatoid arthritis than rheumatoid factor in Thai population?
Source: RHEUMATOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 30 (6): 755-759 APR 2010
Abstract: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of anti-citrulline antibodies (anti-CCP) versus rheumatoid factor (RF) in a cohort of Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a variety of rheumatic diseases other than RA and healthy controls. The association between anti-CCP and RA disease activity was also examined. Serum from 125 RA patients, 60 from other rheumatic diseases (non-RA) and 60 from healthy controls were tested for IgM RF and second generation anti-CCP. The association between anti-CCP, RF, the Disease Activity Score (DAS 28) and other relevant laboratory tests (CBC, ESR and CRP) were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP antibody were 58.7 and 100% when compared with 63.5 and 98.3% for RF. These differences were not statistically significant. The anti-CCP outperformed RF in terms of the positive-predictive values (100 vs. 97.6%); however, the negative-predictive values were 72.4% for RF and 69.6% for anti-CCP. The sensitivity when either anti-CCP or RF was positive increased to 71.2%. Nine out of 45 RF-negative patients had a positive anti-CCP test. Anti-CCP was significantly correlated with parameters of inflammation, but not with DAS 28. In conclusion, although anti-CCP is better than RF in distinguishing RA from other rheumatic diseases, its cost, which is 3.3 times higher than the RF test precludes it from replacing RF as a serum marker for Thai patients with RA. The treatment decisions cannot be based on the test alone, as it has no correlation with DAS 28. Its usefulness is in patients with suspected RA who have had a negative RF test.
ISSN: 0172-8172
DOI: 10.1007/s00296-009-1058-5

Record 166 of 726
Author(s): Chatdarong, K (Chatdarong, K.); Thuwanut, P (Thuwanut, P.); Manee-in, S (Manee-in, S.); Lohachit, C (Lohachit, C.); Axner, E (Axner, E.)
Title: Effects of Thawing Temperature and Post-thaw Dilution on the Quality of Cat Spermatozoa
Source: REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 45 (2): 221-227 APR 2010
Abstract: Contents
The present study aimed to compare cat sperm quality after thawing using two different temperatures (37 and 70 degrees C) and to investigate the effects of post-thaw dilution on the sperm quality and longevity of ejaculated cat spermatozoa. Six ejaculates of each of six male cats were collected using an electroejaculator (total 36 ejaculates). The semen was frozen in 0.25-ml straws using a Tris egg yolk extender containing Equex STM paste. Four straws prepared from each ejaculate were thawed at four different occasions; (i) at 37 degrees C for 15 s, (ii) at 37 degrees C for 15 s and diluted 1 : 2 with Tris buffer (v/v), (iii) at 70 degrees C for 6 s, (iv) at 70 degrees C for 6 s and diluted 1 : 2 with Tris buffer (v/v). The percentages of motile spermatozoa, the scores of progressive motility, the percentages of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane (using SYBR-14/EthD-1 stains) and intact acrosome (using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated peanut agglutinin/propidium iodide stains) were evaluated in fresh semen at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after thawing. The thawing temperature had no effect on any sperm parameters throughout the incubation period (p > 0.05). The dilution after thawing improved sperm motility, progressive motility and acrosome integrity (p < 0.05). The thawing of cat spermatozoa and subsequently diluting with Tris buffer resulted in an immediate (at 0 h) overall (combined over temperature) percentage of motile sperm of 64.8 +/- 10.7 (mean +/- SD), a score of progressive motility of 4.0 +/- 0.5, a percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane of 64.4 +/- 12.1 and intact acrosome of 44.8 +/- 20.2. In conclusion, frozen cat semen can be thawed either at 37 or 70 degrees C and post-thaw dilution is recommended to reduce the toxic effect of some ingredients in the extender during post-thaw incubation.
ISSN: 0936-6768
DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2008.01218.x

Record 167 of 726
Author(s): Geibprasert, S (Geibprasert, Sasikhan); Pongpech, S (Pongpech, Sirintara); Jiarakongmun, P (Jiarakongmun, Pakorn); Shroff, MM (Shroff, Manohar M.); Armstrong, DC (Armstrong, Derek C.); Krings, T (Krings, Timo)
Title: Radiologic Assessment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: What Clinicians Need to Know
Source: RADIOGRAPHICS, 30 (2): 483-501 MAR 2010
Abstract: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal vascular connections within the brain that are presumably congenital in nature. There are several subgroups, the most common being glomerular type brain AVMs, with fistulous type AVMs being less common. A brain AVM may also be a part of more extensive disease (eg, cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome). When intracranial pathologic vessels are encountered at cross-sectional imaging, other diagnoses must also be considered, including large developmental venous anomalies, malignant dural arteriovenous fistulas, and moyamoya disease, since these entities are known to have different natural histories and require different treatment options. Several imaging findings in brain AVMs have an impact on decision making with respect to clinical management; the most important are those known to be associated with risk of future hemorrhage, including evidence of previous hemorrhage, intranidal aneurysms, venous stenosis, deep venous drainage, and deep location of the nidus. Other imaging findings that should be included in the radiology report are secondary effects caused by brain AVMs that may lead to nonhemorrhagic neurologic deficits, such as venous congestion, gliosis, hydrocephalus, or arterial steal. (C)RSNA, 2010.radiographics.rsna.org
ISSN: 0271-5333
DOI: 10.1148/rg.302095728

Record 168 of 726
Author(s): Okamoto, M (Okamoto, Munehiro); Nakao, M (Nakao, Minoru); Blair, D (Blair, David); Anantaphruti, MT (Anantaphruti, Malinee T.); Waikagul, J (Waikagul, Jitra); Ito, A (Ito, Akira)
Title: Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica
Source: PARASITOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 59 (1): 70-74 MAR 2010
Abstract: There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n = 20) and T. saginata (n = 18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1383-5769
DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2009.10.007

Record 169 of 726
Author(s): Kitkumthorn, N (Kitkumthorn, N.); Mutirangura, A (Mutirangura, A.)
Title: LINE-1 methylation difference between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor
Source: ORAL DISEASES, 16 (3): 286-291 APR 2010
Abstract: Objective:
Global hypomethylation is a common epigenetic event in cancer. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and ameloblastoma are different tumors but posses the same tissue in origin. Here, we investigated long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) methylation status between ameloblastoma and KCOT.
Materials and methods:
We studied the methylation levels of the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) in ameloblastoma and KCOT. After collecting ameloblastoma cells and epithelium lining cells of KCOT by laser capture microdissection from paraffin embedded tissue, combined bisulfite restriction analysis of LINE-1 (COBRALINE-1) was performed to measure LINE-1 methylation levels.
The LINE-1 methylation level in KCOT (53.16 +/- 12.03%) was higher than that in ameloblastoma (36.90 +/- 16.52%), with a statistical significance of P = 0.001. The ranges of LINE-1 methylation of both lesions were not associated with either age or sex.
We found LINE-1 hypomethylation levels between ameloblastoma and KCOT are different. Therefore, global methylations between these tumors are processed differently.
ISSN: 1354-523X
DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01640.x

Record 170 of 726
Author(s): Toskulkao, T (Toskulkao, Tipa); Pornchai, R (Pornchai, Ruchee); Akkarapatumwong, V (Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn); Vatanatunyakum, S (Vatanatunyakum, Smith); Govitrapong, P (Govitrapong, Piyarat)
Title: Alteration of lymphocyte opioid receptors in methadone maintenance subjects
Source: NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL, 56 (2): 285-290 JAN 2010
Abstract: Methadone maintenance therapy is the most widely used treatment in patients with heroin addiction. Multiple studies have suggested that both current and former heroin addicts entering a methadone maintenance treatment program have altered immune function. Our previous study indicated that heroin addicts have depressed mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and a decrease in the modulation of lymphocyte surface markers. This immunosuppression may be mediated via the direct interaction of opiates with lymphocyte opioid receptors. In order to test this hypothesis, the levels of opioid receptors on immune cells obtained from heroin users were determined using saturation binding, and it was found that former heroin addicts on methadone maintenance treatment had a significantly reduced maximum number (B-max) of [H-3]naloxone binding. The B-max values were 51.3 +/- 7.6 fmol/mg protein for the non-addicted group and 25.3 +/- 3.1 fmol/mg protein for the methadone maintenance group. Opioid receptor gene expression on the immune cell was determined using a semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction technique with specific pairs of primers to amplify mu-and delta-opioid receptor mRNAs. Both types of mRNAs were significantly decreased in lymphocytes obtained from the former heroin addicts on methadone maintenance subjects. Similarly, in an in vitro study, 100 mu M methadone significantly down-regulated both mu- and delta-opioid receptor mRNA expressions in cultured lymphocytes obtained from naive subjects. This effect was prevented by including 100 mu M naloxone or pretreating with 50 ng/ml pertussis toxin. The data presented indicate that chronic opiate exposure was associated with down-regulation of G-protein-coupled opioid receptor gene expression in human lymphocytes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0197-0186
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuint.2009.10.013

Record 171 of 726
Author(s): Dondorp, AM (Dondorp, Arjen M.); Yeung, S (Yeung, Shunmay); White, L (White, Lisa); Nguon, C (Nguon, Chea); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); Socheat, D (Socheat, Duong); von Seidlein, L (von Seidlein, Lorenz)
Title: Artemisinin resistance: current status and scenarios for containment
Source: NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY, 8 (4): 272-280 APR 2010
Abstract: Artemisinin combination therapies are the first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most malaria-endemic countries. Recently, partial artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum malaria has emerged on the Cambodia-Thailand border. Exposure of the parasite population to artemisinin monotherapies in subtherapeutic doses for over 30 years, and the availability of substandard artemisinins, have probably been the main driving force in the selection of the resistant phenotype in the region. A multifaceted containment programme has recently been launched, including early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, decreasing drug pressure, optimising vector control, targeting the mobile population, strengthening management and surveillance systems, and operational research. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool to evaluate possible strategies for containment.
ISSN: 1740-1526
DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2331

Record 172 of 726
Author(s): Utispan, K (Utispan, Kusumawadee); Thuwajit, P (Thuwajit, Peti); Abiko, Y (Abiko, Yoshimitsu); Charngkaew, K (Charngkaew, Komgrid); Paupairoj, A (Paupairoj, Anucha); Chau-in, S (Chau-in, Siri); Thuwajit, C (Thuwajit, Chanitra)
Title: Gene expression profiling of cholangiocarcinoma-derived fibroblast reveals alterations related to tumor progression and indicates periostin as a poor prognostic marker
Source: MOLECULAR CANCER, 9: Art. No. 13 JAN 24 2010
Abstract: Background: Fibroblasts play important roles in several cancers. It was hypothesized that cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)-associated fibroblasts (Cfs) differ from non-tumorigenic liver fibroblasts (Lfs) in their gene expression profiles resulting in the capability to promote cancer. Periostin (PN) is a multi-functional protein and has emerged as a promising marker for tumor progression. The role of PN in CCA, however, has not yet been explored.
Results: In this study, the gene expression profile of Cfs in comparison to Lfs was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays. The common-and unique-expressed genes in Cfs and the promising roles in cancer promotion and progression were determined. PN was markedly over-expressed in Cfs confirmed by real time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry examination of a number of patients with intrahepatic CCA showed the expression of PN solely in stromal fibroblasts, but was expressed neither in cancer cells nor immune cells. Low to no expression of PN was observed in tissues of benign liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. CCA patients with high levels of PN had significantly shorter survival time than those with low levels (P = 0.026). Multivariate analysis revealed high levels of PN (P = 0.045) and presence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) as independent poor prognostic factors. The in vitro study revealed that recombinant PN induced CCA cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, interference RNA against integrin alpha(5) significantly reduced the cellular response to PN-stimulated proliferation and invasion.
Conclusion: The gene expression profile of fibroblasts in CCA is apparently explored for the first time and has determined the genes involving in induction of this cancer progression. High PN can be used to distinguish CCA from other related liver diseases and is proposed as a prognostic factor of poor survival. Regulation of fibroblast-derived PN in CCA proliferation and invasion may be considered as an alternative therapeutic approach.
ISSN: 1476-4598
Article Number: 13
DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-13

Record 173 of 726
Author(s): Choowongkomon, K (Choowongkomon, Kiattawee); Theppabutr, S (Theppabutr, Sasikrit); Songtawee, N (Songtawee, Napat); Day, NPJ (Day, Nicholas P. J.); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.); Woodrow, CJ (Woodrow, Charles J.); Imwong, M (Imwong, Mallika)
Title: Computational analysis of binding between malarial dihydrofolate reductases and anti-folates
Source: MALARIA JOURNAL, 9: Art. No. 65 MAR 2 2010
Abstract: Background: Plasmodium falciparum readily develops resistance to the anti-folates pyrimethamine and proguanil via a characteristic set of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) gene that leads to reduced competitive drug binding at the enzyme's active site. Analogous mutations can be found in the DHFR gene in isolates of Plasmodium vivax (PvDHFR) although anti-folates have not been widely used for the treatment of this infection. Here the interactions between DHFR inhibitors and modelled structures of the DHFR enzymes of Plasmodium malariae (PmDHFR) and Plasmodium ovale (PoDHFR) are described, along with an investigation of the effect of recently reported mutations within PmDHFR.
Methods: DHFR models for PmDHFR and PoDHFR were constructed using the solved PfDHFR-TS and PvDHFR structures respectively as templates. The modelled structures were docked with three DHFR inhibitors as ligands and more detailed interactions were explored via simulation of molecular dynamics.
Results: Highly accurate models were obtained containing sets of residues that mediate ligand binding which are highly comparable to those mediating binding in known crystal structures. Within this set, there were differences in the relative contribution of individual residues to inhibitor binding. Modelling of PmDHFR mutant sequences revealed that PmDHFR I170M was associated with a significant reduction in binding energy to all DHFR inhibitors studied, while the other predicted resistance mutations had lesser or no effects on ligand binding.
Conclusions: Binding of DHFR inhibitors to the active sites of all four Plasmodium enzymes is broadly similar, being determined by an analogous set of seven residues. PmDHFR mutations found in field isolates influenced inhibitor interactions to a varying extent. In the case of the isolated I170M mutation, the loss of interaction with pyrimethamine suggests that DHFR-inhibitor interactions in P. malariae are different to those seen for DHFRs from P. falciparum and P. vivax.
ISSN: 1475-2875
Article Number: 65
DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-65

Record 174 of 726
Author(s): Bumrungpert, A (Bumrungpert, Akkarach); Kalpravidh, RW (Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W.); Chuang, CC (Chuang, Chia-Chi); Overman, A (Overman, Angel); Martinez, K (Martinez, Kristina); Kennedy, A (Kennedy, Arion); McIntosh, M (McIntosh, Michael)
Title: Xanthones from Mangosteen Inhibit Inflammation in Human Macrophages and in Human Adipocytes Exposed to Macrophage-Conditioned Media
Source: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 140 (4): 842-847 APR 2010
Abstract: Obesity-associated inflammation is characterized by recruitment of macrophages (M Phi) into white adipose tissue (WAT) and production of inflammatory cytokines, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostin (MG), are major bioactive compounds found in mangosteen that are reported to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Thus, we examined the efficacy of MG to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in human M Phi (differentiated U937 cells) and cross-talk with primary cultures of newly differentiated human adipocytes. We found that alpha- and gamma-MG attenuated LPS-induced expression of inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 in a dose-dependent manner in MO. We also found that alpha- and gamma-MG attenuated LPS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1, but only gamma-MG reduced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). In addition, alpha- and gamma-MG attenuated LPS suppression of PPAR gamma gene expression in a close-dependent manner. Notably, the ability of M Phi-conditioned media to cause inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes was attenuated by pretreating M Phi with gamma-MG. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MG attenuates LPS-mediated inflammation in M Phi and insulin resistance in adipocytes, possibly by preventing the activation of MAPK, NF-kappa B, and AP-1, which are central to inflammatory cytokine production in WAT. J. Nutr. 140: 842-847, 2010.
ISSN: 0022-3166
DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.120022

Record 175 of 726
Author(s): Pongsumpun, P (Pongsumpun, Puntani); Tang, IM (Tang, I-Ming)
Source: JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, 18 (1): 55-73 FEB 2010
Abstract: The transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in a mixed population of Thais and migrant Burmese living along the Thai-Myanmar border is studied through a mathematical model. The population is separated into two groups: Thai and Burmese. Each population in turn is divided into susceptible, infected, recovered and in case of vivax infection, a dormant subclass. The model is then modified to allow for some of the Burmese (given as a fraction P) to be infectious when they enter into Thailand. The behaviour of the modified model is obtained using a standard dynamical analysis. A new basic reproduction number is obtained. Numerical simulations of the modified model show that when P not equal 0 and the same set of parameter values used in the initial model are used, the Thai population will be in the epidemic state. In other words, the repeated introduction of infectious Burmese (no matter how small of a number) will result in a malaria epidemic among the Thais irregardless of the public health practice undertaken by the Thai government. In the presence of the infected Burmese, the Thai government would have to increase the facilitites to treat the people who are infected by the malaria.
ISSN: 0218-3390
DOI: 10.1142/S0218339010003147

Record 176 of 726
Author(s): Thamlikitkul, V (Thamlikitkul, Visanu); Trakulsomboon, S (Trakulsomboon, Suwanna)
Title: In vitro activity of biapenem against Burkholderia pseudomallei
ISSN: 0924-8579
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.01.002

Record 177 of 726
Author(s): Muangpaisan, W (Muangpaisan, Weerasak); Brayne, C (Brayne, Carol)
Group Author(s): Alzheimers Soc Vasc Dementia Syste
Title: Systematic review of statins for the prevention of vascular dementia or dementia
Abstract: Aim:
Non-hypolipidemic effects of statins, known as pleiotropic effects, are likely to explain the effect of statins on dementia. Results of the relationship between statins and dementia in previous studies are conflicting. There is no systematic review investigating the effect of statins on vascular dementia (VaD). This systematic review evaluates the role of statins in the prevention of VaD or dementia. The possible causes of conflicting results in the existing published work will be explored.
Relevant studies were systematically identified and reviewed. The Cochrane Controlled Trials and three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo) were searched. The selection criteria were defined a priori. Included studies were rated by quality assessment checklists and two independent reviewers.
Six studies in dementia, two studies in VaD (one study reported both dementia and VaD) and two meta-analyses met the selection criteria. The studies covered 1372 cases of dementia from 14 430 participants and 116 cases of VaD from 4924 participants from the USA and UK. There was no association between statin use and risk of VaD. The protective effect of statins on dementia was demonstrated only in a nested case-control study of lower quality and one recently published cohort study. In most other cohort and high quality studies, statin use did not show a beneficial effect.
Study design differences among the studies and methodological shortcomings may have resulted in different outcomes. On the basis of these conflicting results, statins could not be recommended as a preventative treatment for dementia.
ISSN: 1444-1586
DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2009.00579.x

Record 178 of 726
Author(s): Vayachuta, L (Vayachuta, Lapporn); Phinyocheep, P (Phinyocheep, Pranee); Derouet, D (Derouet, Daniel); Pascual, S (Pascual, Sagrario)
Title: Synthesis of ATRP macroinitiator based on synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene and its application for graft polymerization of MMA
Source: E-POLYMERS: Art. No. 029 MAR 13 2010
Abstract: Modification of synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI) into bromoalkyl-functionalized polyisoprene (PIBr), an ATRP macroinitiator, was investigated by two-step chemical reaction. The PI was partially epoxidized into epoxidized polyisoprene (EPI) using m-chloroperbenzoic acid, then the EPI was transformed into PIBr by reaction with 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid. The results from H-1 NMR revealed that the addition product occurs in competition with epoxide ring rearrangement. The amount of bromoalkyl functionalized units was determined from H-1 NMR spectra. The graft polymerization of MMA using ATRP technique from macroinitiator units in PIBr was investigated using three different ligands, i.e. N-(n-octyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine (NOPMI), N-(n-octadecyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine (NODPMI) and 1,1,4,7,7-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA), resulting in formation of graft copolymer of PI and PMMA. The PMMA grafts were successfully separated from the PI backbone using acidolysis for studying their number-average molecular weights ((M) over bar (n,SEC)) and polydispersity indexes (PDI). All of the ligands used give a increase of (M) over bar (n) with MMA conversion. Comparing between 3 ligands, Cu(I) Br complexed with NOPMI shows first-order kinetic plot.
ISSN: 1618-7229
Article Number: 029

Record 179 of 726
Author(s): Onlamoon, N (Onlamoon, Nattawat); Noisakran, S (Noisakran, Sansanee); Hsiao, HM (Hsiao, Hui-Mien); Duncan, A (Duncan, Alexander); Villinger, F (Villinger, Francois); Ansari, AA (Ansari, Aftab A.); Perng, GC (Perng, Guey Chuen)
Title: Dengue virus-induced hemorrhage in a nonhuman primate model
Source: BLOOD, 115 (9): 1823-1834 MAR 4 2010
Abstract: Lack of a dengue hemorrhagic animal model recapitulating human dengue virus infection has been a significant impediment in advancing our understanding of the early events involved in the pathogenesis of dengue disease. In efforts to address this issue, a group of rhesus macaques were intravenously infected with dengue virus serotype 2 (strain 16 681) at 1 x 10(7) PFU/animal. A classic dengue hemorrhage developed 3 to 5 days after infection in 6 of 6 animals. Blood chemistry appeared to be normal with exception of creatine phosphokinase, which peaked at 7 days after infection. A modest thrombocytopenia and noticeable neutropenia concomitant with slight decrease of hemoglobin and hematocrit were registered. In addition, the concentration of D-dimer was elevated significantly. Viremia peaked at 3 to 5 days after infection followed by an inverse relationship between T and B lymphocytes and a bimodal pattern for platelet-monocytes and platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Dengue virus containing platelets engulfed by monocytes was noted at 8 or 9 days after infection. Thus, rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously with a high dose of dengue virus produced dengue hemorrhage, which may provide a unique platform to define the early events in dengue virus infection and help identify which blood components contribute to the pathogenesis of dengue disease. (Blood. 2010;115:1823-1834)
ISSN: 0006-4971
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-09-242990

Record 180 of 726
Author(s): Eamsobhana, P (Eamsobhana, Praphathip); Yoolek, A (Yoolek, Adisak); Yong, HS (Yong, Hoi-Sen)
Title: Effect of Thai 'koi-hoi' food flavoring on the viability and infectivity of the third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)
Source: ACTA TROPICA, 113 (3): 245-247 MAR 2010
Abstract: The effect of the food flavoring of 'koi-hoi', a popular Thai snail dish, on the viability and infectivity of Angiostrongylus (= Parastrongylus) cantonensis third-stage larvae was assessed in a mouse model. Groups of 50 each of actively moving, non-motile coiled, and extended larvae were obtained from experimentally infected snail meat, after one-hour exposure to standard 'koi-hoi' flavoring. These larvae and groups of 50 unexposed moving larvae (control) were individually fed to each group of three experimental BALB/c mice. The effect on Angiostrongylus worm burden was measured after 3 weeks of infection. infectivity of the motile larvae after exposure to 'koi-hoi' food flavoring was 38 +/- 5.29%. This was highly significantly lower than the infectivity (62 +/- 7.21%) of the control (unexposed) third-stage larvae (chi(2) = 17.28, P < 0.001). In the non-motile larvae resulting from exposure to the food flavoring, no adult worm was recovered from the extended larvae, indicating that they were no longer alive and unable to cause infection. A small proportion (3.33 +/- 2.31%) of the coiled larvae developed into young adult worms, indicating that mobility alone is not a definitive indicator of viability. The present study confirms that the food flavoring components of 'koi-hoi' dish adversely affect the viability and infectivity of A. cantonensis larvae. Exposure of the third-stage larvae to 'koi-hoi' food flavoring resulted in decreased viability and eventually death. Prolonged treatment with food flavoring to inactivate/immobilize and then kill the infective, third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in snail meat prior to consumption may be one of the possible economical means of reducing human infection. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0001-706X
DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.11.004

Record 181 of 726
Author(s): Chuthapisith, S (Chuthapisith, Suebwong); Eremin, J (Eremin, Jennifer); El-Sheemey, M (El-Sheemey, Mohamed); Eremin, O (Eremin, Oleg)
Title: Breast cancer chemoresistance: Emerging importance of cancer stem cells
Source: SURGICAL ONCOLOGY-OXFORD, 19 (1): 27-32 MAR 2010
Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been documented in solid tumours. Evidence has suggested that CSCs are involved in carcinogenesis, tumour invasion and metastases, and resistance to various forms of therapies, including chemotherapy. Breast CSCs are characterised by the expression of CD44 but lack of CD24 (CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells). The mechanisms involved in chemoresistance of breast CSCs are complex and not clearly defined. Overexpression of ABC transporters, detoxification enzymes (aldehyde dehydrogenase), low cell turn over rate and the ability to activate the DNA check point response are possibly all involved. Innovative therapies, based on a better understanding of CSCs, should lead to enhanced and tong-term cure rates in breast cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0960-7404
DOI: 10.1016/j.suronc.2009.01.004

Record 182 of 726
Author(s): Bhakdi, SC (Bhakdi, Sebastian C.); Ottinger, A (Ottinger, Annette); Somsri, S (Somsri, Sangdao); Sratongno, P (Sratongno, Panudda); Pannadaporn, P (Pannadaporn, Peeranad); Chimma, P (Chimma, Pattamawan); Malasit, P (Malasit, Prida); Pattanapanyasat, K (Pattanapanyasat, Kovit); Neumann, HPH (Neumann, Hartmut P. H.)
Title: Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells
Source: MALARIA JOURNAL, 9: Art. No. 38 FEB 2 2010
Abstract: Background: Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previously reported using polymer coated columns, while HGMS depletion has not been described yet. This study presents a new approach to both HGMS concentration and depletion in malaria research, rendering polymer coating unnecessary.
Methods: A dipole magnet generating a strong homogenous field was custom assembled. Polypropylene syringes were fitted with one-way stopcocks and filled with stainless steel wool. Rbc from Plasmodium falciparum cultures were resuspended in density and viscosity optimized HGMS buffers and HGMS processed. Purification and depletion results were analysed by flow cytometer and light microscopy. Viability was evaluated by calculating the infection rate after re-culturing of isolates.
Results: In HGMS concentration, purity of irbc isolates from asynchronous cultures consistently ranged from 94.8% to 98.4% (mean 95.7%). With further optimization, over 90% of isolated irbc contained segmented schizonts. Processing time was less than 45 min. Reinfection rates ranged from 21.0% to 56.4%. In HGMS depletion, results were comparable to treatment with sorbitol, as demonstrated by essentially identical development of cultures.
Conclusion: The novel HGMS concentration procedure achieves high purities of segmented stage irbc from standard asynchronous cultures, and is the first HGMS depletion alternative to sorbitol lysis. It represents a simple and highly efficient alternative to conventional irbc concentration and synchronization methods.
ISSN: 1475-2875
Article Number: 38
DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-38

Record 183 of 726
Author(s): Wongtrakul, J (Wongtrakul, Jeerang); Pongjaroenkit, S (Pongjaroenkit, Saengtong); Leelapat, P (Leelapat, Posri); Nachaiwieng, W (Nachaiwieng, Woottichai); Prapanthadara, LA (Prapanthadara, La-Aied); Ketterman, AJ (Ketterman, Albert J.)
Title: Expression and Characterization of Three New Glutathione Transferases, an Epsilon (AcGSTE2-2), Omega (AcGSTO1-1), and Theta (AeGSTT1-1) From Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae), a Major Thai Malaria Vector
Source: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY, 47 (2): 162-171 MAR 2010
Abstract: Glutathione transferases (CSTs) (E.C. are Multifunctional enzymes involved in the detoxification of many exogenous and endogenous compounds. This study aimed to characterize several new GSTs from Anopheles cracens, a major Thai malaria vector formerly known as Anopheles dirus. The three recombinant enzymes obtained were from the epsilon, theta and omega classes. They showed 80-93% identity to orthologous An. gambiae GSTs. AcGSTE2-2 possessed peroxidase activity that cannot be detected for the An. gambiae AgGSTE2-2. AcGSTT1-1 had high activity toward several substrates that are specific for mammalian theta class. The AeGSTO1-1 call use 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, dichloroacetic acid, and hydroxyethyl disulfide substrates. The enzymes bound but did not metabolize the organophosphate temephos. The epsilon AcGSTE2-2 functioned as a peroxidase and DDT metabolizing enzyme. The theta AeGSTT1-1 functioned not only as peroxidase but also acted as a binding protein for organopbosphates. The omega GST had thiol transferase activity suggesting a role in oxidative stress response.
ISSN: 0022-2585
DOI: 10.1603/ME09132

Record 184 of 726
Author(s): Wiersinga, WJ (Wiersinga, W. Joost); Kager, LM (Kager, Liesbeth M.); Hovius, JWR (Hovius, Joppe W. R.); van der Windt, GJW (van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.); de Vos, AF (de Vos, Alex F.); Meijers, JCM (Meijers, Joost C. M.); Roelofs, JJ (Roelofs, Joris J.); Dondorp, A (Dondorp, Arjen); Levi, M (Levi, Marcel); Day, NP (Day, Nicholas P.); Peacock, SJ (Peacock, Sharon J.); van der Poll, T (van der Poll, Tom)
Title: Urokinase Receptor Is Necessary for Bacterial Defense against Pneumonia-Derived Septic Melioidosis by Facilitating Phagocytosis
Source: JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 184 (6): 3079-3086 MAR 15 2010
Abstract: Urokinase receptor (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor [uPAR], CD87), a GPI-anchored protein, is considered to play an important role in inflammation and fibrinolysis. The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is able to survive and replicate within leukocytes and causes melioidosis, an important cause of pneumonia-derived community-acquired sepsis in Southeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of uPAR both in patients with septic melioidosis and in a murine model of experimental melioidosis. uPAR mRNA and surface expression was increased in patients with septic melioidosis in/on both peripheral blood monocytes and granulocytes as well as in the pulmonary compartment during experimental pneumonia-derived melioidosis in mice. uPAR-deficient mice intranasally infected with B. pseudomallei showed an enhanced growth and dissemination of B. pseudomallei when compared with wild-type mice, corresponding with increased pulmonary and hepatic inflammation. uPAR knockout mice demonstrated significantly reduced neutrophil migration toward the pulmonary compartment after inoculation with B. pseudomallei. Further in vitro experiments showed that uPAR-deficient macrophages and granulocytes display a markedly impaired phagocytosis of B. pseudomallei. Additional studies showed that uPAR deficiency did not influence hemostatic and fibrinolytic responses during severe melioidosis. These data suggest that uPAR is crucially involved in the host defense against sepsis caused by B. pseudomallei by facilitating the migration of neutrophils toward the primary site of infection and subsequently facilitating the phagocytosis of B. pseudomallei. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 3079-3086.
ISSN: 0022-1767
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0901008

Record 185 of 726
Author(s): Lundberg, PC (Lundberg, Pranee C.); Kerdonfag, P (Kerdonfag, Petcharat)
Title: Spiritual care provided by Thai nurses in intensive care units
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, 19 (7-8): 1121-1128 APR 2010
Abstract: Aim.
The aim of this study was to explore how Thai nurses in intensive care units of a university hospital in Bangkok provided spiritual care to their patients.
The function of nursing is to promote health, prevent illness, restore health and alleviate suffering. An holistic approach to this promotion includes spirituality.
An explorative qualitative study was used.
Thirty Thai nurses, selected through purposive sampling with the snowball technique, participated voluntarily. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were carried out, taped-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis.
Five themes related to the provision of spiritual care emerged: giving mental support, facilitating religious rituals and cultural beliefs, communicating with patients and patients' families, assessing the spiritual needs of patients and showing respect and facilitating family participation in care. Several ways of improving the spiritual care were suggested by the nurses.
Spirituality was an important part of the care for the nurses when meeting the needs of their patients and the patients' families. Therefore, nursing education should enhance nurses' understanding and awareness of spiritual issues and prepare them to respond to human spiritual needs.
Relevance to clinical practice.
Nurses should consider spirituality as an important component of holistic care. During their professional career, they should expand their knowledge and understanding of spirituality and develop tools for assessment of spiritual needs.
ISSN: 0962-1067
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03072.x

Record 186 of 726
Author(s): Chanthateyanonth, R (Chanthateyanonth, Ratana); Ruchirawat, S (Ruchirawat, Somsak); Srisitthiratkul, C (Srisitthiratkul, Chutima)
Title: Preparation of New Water-Soluble Chitosan Containing Hyperbranched-Vinylsulfonic Acid Sodium Salt and Their Antimicrobial Activities and Chelation with Metals
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, 116 (4): 2074-2082 MAY 15 2010
Abstract: In this work, an efficient and simple method to graft a vinylsulfonic acid sodium salt on a poorly water- soluble chitosan is described. Commercially available low molecular weight chitosan is converted to water-soluble chitosan containing hyperbranched-vinylsulfonic acid sodium salt groups. The process comprises the following steps: Michael addition of methyl acrylate, amidation with ethylenediamine, and Michael addition of methyl acrylate, amidation with ethylenediamine, salt. A variety of chitosans containing vinylsulfonic acid sodium salt, with improved water solubility, is synthesiszed by repeating these three steps. The new chitosan derivatives show better antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 and Achromobacter xylosoxidans ATCC 2706. In addition, they display better chelating behavior with heavy metals, like cadmium(II), copper(II), and nickel(II), than the starting chitosan. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116:2074-2082, 2010
ISSN: 0021-8995
DOI: 10.1002/app.31732

Record 187 of 726
Author(s): Yokthongwattana, K (Yokthongwattana, Kittisak); Sriariyanun, M (Sriariyanun, Malinee); Ekaratcharoenchai, P (Ekaratcharoenchai, Pallop); Svasti, J (Svasti, Jisnuson)
Title: Characterization of fatty acids and proteins associated with the xanthophyll-enriched membrane fraction isolated from the thylakoid membranes of irradiance-stressed Dunaliella salina
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYCOLOGY, 22 (2): 147-155 APR 2010
Abstract: It has been previously reported that a considerable amount of lutein and zeaxanthin could be fractionated, upon mild detergent treatment, from the thylakoid membranes of irradiance-stressed unicellular green alga, Dunaliella salina, into a yellow pellet fraction. Such membrane pellet was found to be devoid of chlorophylls and any known proteins of photosynthesis but rather contained a significant amount of unknown polypeptides. It was speculated that this xanthophyll-rich membrane pellet might originate from incomplete solubilization of the photoinhibited thylakoids by weak surfactants, due to extra rigidity imposed by the xanthophylls being directly imbedded into the lipid bilayer. In this study, we further characterized this membrane fraction by studying its associated proteins and fatty acid composition. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that this yellow pellet membrane was enriched in saturated fatty acids, supporting the rigidity notion of the pellet. Protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS further revealed that at least 20 water-soluble proteins were found in association with this pellet. These proteins may originate from unspecific contamination of abundant polypeptides co-precipitated with the membrane upon fractionation. Possible explanations regarding the nature of this xanthophyll-rich membrane are also discussed.
ISSN: 0921-8971
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-009-9434-9

Record 188 of 726
Author(s): Sasaki, T (Sasaki, Tadahiro); Hirai, I (Hirai, Itaru); Niki, M (Niki, Marie); Nakamura, T (Nakamura, Tatsuya); Komalamisra, C (Komalamisra, Chalit); Maipanich, W (Maipanich, Wanna); Kusolsuk, T (Kusolsuk, Teera); Sa-nguankiat, S (Sa-nguankiat, Surapol); Pubampen, S (Pubampen, Somchit); Yamamoto, Y (Yamamoto, Yoshimasa)
Title: High prevalence of CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool specimens obtained from healthy individuals in Thailand
Abstract: To determine the prevalence of CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool specimens obtained from healthy individuals in a rural area of Thailand.
Bacteria in stool specimens were screened for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production on McConkey agar with cefotaxime and confirmed by the double-disc synergy test. Genetic detection and genotyping of CTX-M-type ESBL was performed by PCR with bacterial DNA extracted from isolates.
A markedly high number (82 of 141, 58.2%) of the specimens showed the presence of CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by both phenotypic and genetic examinations. The majority of the CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing bacteria were Escherichia coli (85.1%).
The study revealed the wide dissemination of CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the healthy population.
ISSN: 0305-7453
DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkq008

Record 189 of 726
Author(s): Suwannalert, P (Suwannalert, Prasit); Rattanachitthawat, S (Rattanachitthawat, Sirichet); Chaiyasut, C (Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat); Riengrojpitak, S (Riengrojpitak, Suda)
Title: High levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [25(OH)D-3] and alpha-tocopherol prevent oxidative stress in rats that consume Thai brown rice
Source: JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH, 4 (2): 120-124 JAN 18 2010
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been proposed to play an important role in the progression of chronic diseases. The red color strain of Thai brown rice, a high source of phenolic compounds, may play a crucial role in oxidative stress prevention. In the present study, rats were fed with 0% (Control), 10 and 70% Thai brown rice in the mixed food. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), storage vitamin D [25(OH) D-3] and alpha-tocopherol were investigated. The mean value of MDA in high and low dose groups was significantly lower than that of the controls in both male and female. FRAP in the high dose males was significantly higher than that in the control. Mean value of MDA and alpha-tocopherol was inversely related (r = -0.538, p = 0.001). Interestingly, serum 25(OH) D3 of the high dose group was more significant different than that of the controls in both males (p = 0.001) and females (p = 0.005). Moreover, MDA level was strongly inversely related to that of 25(OH) D-3 (r = -0.656, p < 0.001). The results indicated that the rats consuming Thai brown rice possessed low level of oxidative stress marker, MDA, through both radical and non radical defenses.
ISSN: 1996-0875

Record 190 of 726
Author(s): Souris, M (Souris, Marc); Gonzalez, JP (Gonzalez, Jean-Paul); Shanmugasundaram, J (Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh); Corvest, V (Corvest, Victoria); Kittayapong, P (Kittayapong, Pattamaporn)
Title: Retrospective space-time analysis of H5N1 Avian Influenza emergence in Thailand
Abstract: Background: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus remains a worldwide threat to human and animal health, while the mechanisms explaining its epizootic emergence and re-emergence in poultry are largely unknown. Data from Thailand, a country that experienced significant epidemics in poultry and has recorded suspicious cases of HPAI on a daily basis since 2004, are used here to study the process of emergence. A spatial approach is employed to describe all HPAI H5N1 virus epizootics from 2004 to 2008 and to characterize the pattern of emergence: multiple independent introductions of the virus followed by moderate local spread vs. very rare emergences followed by strong local spread and rare long range diffusion jumps. Sites where epizootics originate (by foreign introduction, local persistence, or long range jump) were selected from those to which the disease subsequently spreads using a filter based on relative date and position. The spatial distribution of these selected foci was statistically analyzed, and to differentiate environmental factors from long range diffusion, we investigate the relationship of these foci with environmental exposure factors and with rearing characteristics.
Results: During each wave of epizootics, the temporal occurrence of cases did not show a temporal interruption of more than a week. All foci were globally clustered; i.e., more than 90% of cases had a previous case within a 10 km range and a 21 day period of time, showing a strong local spread. We were able to estimate 60 km as the maximum distance for the local farm to farm dissemination process. The remaining "emergent" cases have occurred randomly over Thailand and did not show specific location, clusters, or trends. We found that these foci are not statistically related to specific environmental conditions or land cover characteristics, and most of them may be interpreted as long range diffusion jumps due to commercial practices.
Conclusion: We conclude that only a few foci appear to have been at the origin of each HPAI epidemic wave, leading to the practical action that surveillance and control must focus on farm to farm transmission rather than on emergence or wild fauna.
ISSN: 1476-072X
Article Number: 3
DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-9-3

Record 191 of 726
Author(s): Sokal, DC (Sokal, David C.); Vach, TH (Vach, Trinh Huu); Nanda, K (Nanda, Kavita); McCann, MF (McCann, Margaret F.); Weiner, DH (Weiner, Debra H.); Drobnes, C (Drobnes, Claude); Rochanawutanon, M (Rochanawutanon, Mana); Duc, NB (Duc, Nguyen Ba); Loan, ND (Loan, Nguyen Dinh)
Title: Quinacrine Sterilization and Gynecologic Cancers A Case-Control Study in Northern Vietnam
Source: EPIDEMIOLOGY, 21 (2): 164-171 MAR 2010
Abstract: Background: Over 100,000 women worldwide have been sterilized by insertion of quinacrine into the uterus to induce tubal scarring. Concern has been expressed about possible carcinogenicity, and specifically the risk of uterine cancer.
Methods: From 2001 through 2006, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of gynecologic cancers in 12 provinces in northern Vietnam, where relatively large numbers of women had received quinacrine. Cases of incident cervical, ovarian, and uterine cancer were identified at provincial hospitals or at referral hospitals in Hanoi. For each case, 3 age- and residence-matched controls were randomly selected from the population registries of the case's home community.
Results: The prevalence of quinacrine exposure was 1.2% among cases and 1.1% among controls. For cervical cancer, analysis of 606 cases (9 exposed) and their 1774 matched controls (18 exposed) produced an odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval = 0.59-3.48) ( adjusted for several covariates including human papillomavirus risk score). For ovarian cancer, based on 262 cases (3 exposed) and 755 controls (8 exposed) and adjusted for age and number of years of ovulation, the odds ratio was 1.26 (0.21-5.45). For uterine cancer, none of the cases-including 23 cases of leiomyosarcoma- was exposed to quinacrine. The 95% confidence interval, based on 161 cases (none exposed) and 470 controls (7 exposed) and adjusted only for age, was 0-1.85.
Conclusion: We found no evidence of a relationship between quinacrine sterilization and gynecologic cancer.
ISSN: 1044-3983
DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181cb41c8

Record 192 of 726
Author(s): Arunachalam, N (Arunachalam, Natarajan); Tana, S (Tana, Susilowati); Espino, F (Espino, Fe); Kittayapong, P (Kittayapong, Pattamaporn); Abeyewickreme, W (Abeyewickreme, Wimal); Wai, KT (Wai, Khin Thet); Tyagi, BK (Tyagi, Brij Kishore); Kroeger, A (Kroeger, Axel); Sommerfeld, J (Sommerfeld, Johannes); Petzold, M (Petzold, Max)
Title: Eco-bio-social determinants of dengue vector breeding: a multicountry study in urban and periurban Asia
Abstract: Objective To study dengue vector breeding patterns under a variety of conditions in public and private spaces; to explore the ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social) factors involved in vector breeding and viral transmission, and to define the main implications for vector control.
Methods In each of six Asian cities or periurban areas, a team randomly selected urban clusters for conducting standardized household surveys, neighbourhood background surveys and entomological surveys. They collected information on vector breeding sites, people's knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding dengue, and the characteristics of the study areas. All premises were inspected; larval indices were used to quantity vector breeding sites, and pupal counts were used to identify productive water container types and as a proxy measure for adult vector abundance.
Findings The most productive vector breeding sites were outdoor water containers, particularly if uncovered, beneath shrubbery and unused for at least one week. Peridomestic and intradomestic areas were much more important for pupal production than commercial and public spaces other than schools and religious facilities. A complex but non-significant association was found between water supply and pupal counts, and lack of waste disposal services was associated with higher vector abundance in only one site. Greater knowledge about dengue and its transmission was associated with lower mosquito breeding and production. Vector control measures (mainly larviciding in one site) substantially reduced larval and pupal counts and "pushed" mosquito breeding to alternative containers.
Conclusion Vector breeding and the production of adult Aedes aegypti are influenced by a complex interplay of factors. Thus, to achieve effective vector management, a public health response beyond routine larviciding or focal spraying is essential.
ISSN: 0042-9686
DOI: 10.2471/BLT.09.067892

Record 193 of 726
Author(s): Sritunyalucksana, K (Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya); Srisala, J (Srisala, Jiraporn); Wangnai, W (Wangnai, Watcharakorn); Flegel, TW (Flegel, Timothy W.)
Title: Yellow head virus (YHV) transmission risk from commodity shrimp is reduced to negligible levels by normal processing
Source: AQUACULTURE, 300 (1-4): 32-36 FEB 27 2010
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine whether shrimp yellow head virus (YHV) from processed shrimp tissue infected at the pre-patent disease level could be transmitted to naive shrimp in a laboratory setting. In a preliminary test, 120 YHV-free shrimp were injected intramuscularly with a virulent YHV stock to yield 5 x 10(5) (pre-patent disease level) and 2500 (carrier level) viral copies/g; shrimp tissue (60 shrimp each dose). These are possible infection levels for grossly normal shrimp from normal harvest ponds (i.e., not shrimp from disease outbreak ponds). These yielded 1-step and 2-step positive (nested) RT-PCR reactions, respectively, in pleopods at 6 h post-injection of the viral stock. After being subjected to standard industrial processing conditions, only fresh frozen whole or peeled shrimp injected with pre-patent dose gave positive RT-PCR test results for YHV. None of the naive shrimp exposed to the chopped processed products for 24 h and then reared on a standard diet for 14 days showed any significant mortality or gave any positive test results for YHV using nested RT-PCR assays. Based on these preliminary test results, a large-scale test was carried out using only the high, pre-patent injection dose with 1000 fresh frozen whole shrimp. The negative control consisted of 1000 buffer-injected shrimp. A random sample of 60 shrimp from the YHV-injected group after processing, revealed 57 positive for YHV by 1-step RT-PCR assay. Of the 3 remaining, 2 were positive and I negative by nested RT-PCR assay. All 60 shrimp from the buffer-injected, control group were negative for YHV by nested RT-PCR assay. Exposure of these whole shrimp to naive shrimp resulted in no significant mortality and no positive RT-PCR test results for YHV by nested RT-PCR assay in the exposed naive shrimp. Our results showed that grossly normal whole shrimp processed by chilling and freezing would present negligible YHV disease transmission risks, even if they were 1-step RT-PCR positive for YHV. Thus, shrimp subjected to any additional processing steps such as peeling or cooking should present even lower transmission risks. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0044-8486
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.01.014

Record 194 of 726
Author(s): Pulmanausahakul, R (Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn); Khakpoor, A (Khakpoor, Atefeh); Smith, DR (Smith, Duncan R.)
Title: The development of flavivirus vaccines
Source: AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, 9 (4): 409-415 JAN 25 2010
Abstract: Mosquito and tick-borne flaviviruses are the causative agents of some of the world's most important diseases, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever. Cumulatively, these viruses cause many millions of infections each year and impose a significant burden on public health resources, particularly in developing and newly developed countries. Vaccine development to eliminate flaviviral infections has been marked by uneven progress and a large number of setbacks. To date, no single approach has proved successful in leading to vaccine development against a wide range of flaviviruses, but the application of modern techniques to the problem is opening up new avenues of approach. This review summarizes some of the developments in vaccine research aimed at inducing protective immunity against flaviviral infections.
ISSN: 1684-5315

Record 195 of 726
Author(s): Gangnonngiw, W (Gangnonngiw, Warachin); Laisutisan, K (Laisutisan, Kesinee); Sriurairatana, S (Sriurairatana, Siriporn); Senapin, S (Senapin, Saengchan); Chuchird, N (Chuchird, Niti); Limsuwan, C (Limsuwan, Chalor); Chaivisuthangkura, P (Chaivisuthangkura, Parin); Flegel, TW (Flegel, Timothy W.)
Title: Monodon baculovirus (MBV) infects the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in Thailand
Source: VIRUS RESEARCH, 148 (1-2): 24-30 MAR 2010
Abstract: Field specimens of post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) from Thailand showed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells that contained central, eosinophilic inclusions within enlarged nuclei and marginated chromatin. These inclusions resembled those produced by some baculoviruses prior to formation of occlusion bodies that enclose virions in a polyhedrin protein matrix. By electron microscopy, the intranuclear inclusions contained bacilliform, enveloped virions (approximately 327 +/- 29 nm x 87 +/- 12 nm) with evenly dense, linear nucleocapsids surrounded by trilaminar envelopes with lateral pockets containing nucleoproteinic filaments. In some cases, these were accompanied by moderately electron dense, spherical particles of approximately 20 nm diameter resembling polyhedrin subunits of occlusion bodies (OB) of a bacilliform virus of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, previously reported from Thailand and called monodon baculoviruis (MBV). It is currently listed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses as Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV). Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for MBV gave positive results with DNA extracts prepared from M. rosenbergii samples using the hot phenol technique. One of these assays targeted the polyhedrin gene of MBV to which the resulting amplicon showed 100% sequence identity. Presence of the Penaeus monodon virus polyhedrin gene was confirmed by in situ hybridization assays and by positive immunohistochemical reactions in one sample batch. The data revealed that MBV can be found but may rarely produce polyhedrin occlusion bodies in M. rosenbergii. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0168-1702
DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2009.12.001

Record 196 of 726
Author(s): Stringer, JSA (Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.); McConnell, MS (McConnell, Michelle S.); Kiarie, J (Kiarie, James); Bolu, O (Bolu, Omotayo); Anekthananon, T (Anekthananon, Thanomsak); Jariyasethpong, T (Jariyasethpong, Tavatchai); Potter, D (Potter, Dara); Mutsotso, W (Mutsotso, Winnie); Borkowf, CB (Borkowf, Craig B.); Mbori-Ngacha, D (Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy); Muiruri, P (Muiruri, Peter); Ong'ech, JO (Ong'ech, John Odero); Zulu, I (Zulu, Isaac); Njobvu, L (Njobvu, Lungowe); Jetsawang, B (Jetsawang, Bongkoch); Pathak, S (Pathak, Sonal); Bulterys, M (Bulterys, Marc); Shaffer, N (Shaffer, Nathan); Weidle, PJ (Weidle, Paul J.)
Title: Effectiveness of Non-nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Previously Exposed to a Single Intrapartum Dose of Nevirapine: A Multi-country, Prospective Cohort Study
Source: PLOS MEDICINE, 7 (2): Art. No. e1000233 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure.
Methods and Findings: We enrolled 355 NVP-exposed and 523 NVP-unexposed women at two sites in Zambia, one site in Kenya, and two sites in Thailand into a prospective, non-inferiority cohort study and followed them for 48 wk on ART. Those who died, discontinued NNRTI-containing ART, or had a plasma viral load >= 400 copies/ml at either the 24 wk or 48 wk study visits and confirmed on repeat testing were characterized as having failed therapy. Overall, 114 of 355 NVP-exposed women (32.1%) and 132 of 523 NVP-unexposed women (25.2%) met criteria for treatment failure. The difference in failure rates between the exposure groups was 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%-13.0%). The failure rates of women stratified by our predefined exposure interval categories were as follows: 47 of 116 women in whom less than 6 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (40%; p<0.001 compared to unexposed women); 25 of 67 women in whom 7-12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (37%; p = 0.04 compared to unexposed women); and 42 of 172 women in whom more than 12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (24%; p = 0.82 compared to unexposed women). Locally weighted regression analysis also indicated a clear inverse relationship between virologic failure and the exposure interval.
Conclusions: Prior exposure to single-dose NVP was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure; however, this risk seems largely confined to women with a more recent exposure. Women requiring ART within 12 mo of NVP exposure should not be prescribed an NNRTI-containing regimen as first-line therapy.
ISSN: 1549-1277
Article Number: e1000233
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000233

Record 197 of 726
Author(s): Wiersinga, WJ (Wiersinga, W. Joost); Calandra, T (Calandra, Thierry); Kager, LM (Kager, Liesbeth M.); van der Windt, GJW (van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.); Roger, T (Roger, Thierry); le Roy, D (le Roy, Didier); Florquin, S (Florquin, Sandrine); Peacock, SJ (Peacock, Sharon J.); Sweep, FCGJ (Sweep, Fred C. G. J.); van der Poll, T (van der Poll, Tom)
Title: Expression and Function of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Melioidosis
Source: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 4 (2): Art. No. e605 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged as a pivotal mediator of innate immunity and has been shown to be an important effector molecule in severe sepsis. Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important cause of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast-Asia. We aimed to characterize the expression and function of MIF in melioidosis.
Methodology and Principal Findings: MIF expression was determined in leukocytes and plasma from 34 melioidosis patients and 32 controls, and in mice infected with B. pseudomallei. MIF function was investigated in experimental murine melioidosis using anti-MIF antibodies and recombinant MIF. Patients demonstrated markedly increased MIF mRNA leukocyte and MIF plasma concentrations. Elevated MIF concentrations were associated with mortality. Mice inoculated intranasally with B. pseudomallei displayed a robust increase in pulmonary and systemic MIF expression. Anti-MIF treated mice showed lower bacterial loads in their lungs upon infection with a low inoculum. Conversely, mice treated with recombinant MIF displayed a modestly impaired clearance of B. pseudomallei. MIF exerted no direct effects on bacterial outgrowth or phagocytosis of B. pseudomallei.
Conclusions: MIF concentrations are markedly elevated during clinical melioidosis and correlate with patients' outcomes. In experimental melioidosis MIF impaired antibacterial defense.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Article Number: e605
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000605

Record 198 of 726
Author(s): Suputtamongkol, Y (Suputtamongkol, Yupin); Pongtavornpinyo, W (Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada); Lubell, Y (Lubell, Yoel); Suttinont, C (Suttinont, Chuanpit); Hoontrakul, S (Hoontrakul, Siriwan); Phimda, K (Phimda, Kriangsak); Losuwanaluk, K (Losuwanaluk, Kitti); Suwancharoen, D (Suwancharoen, Duangjai); Silpasakorn, S (Silpasakorn, Saowaluk); Chierakul, W (Chierakul, Wirongrong); Day, N (Day, Nick)
Title: Strategies for Diagnosis and Treatment of Suspected Leptospirosis: A Cost-Benefit Analysis
Source: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 4 (2): Art. No. e610 FEB 2010
Abstract: Background: Symptoms and signs of leptospirosis are non-specific. Several diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are available and in some instances are being used prior to treatment of leptospirosis-suspected patients. There is therefore a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment strategies in order to avoid misuse of scarce resources and ensure best possible health outcomes for patients.
Methods: The study population was adult patients, presented with uncomplicated acute febrile illness, without an obvious focus of infection or malaria or typical dengue infection. We compared the cost and effectiveness of 5 management strategies: 1) no patients tested or given antibiotic treatment; 2) all patients given empirical doxycycline treatment; patients given doxycycline when a patient is tested positive for leptospirosis using: 3) lateral flow; 4) MCAT; 5) latex test. The framework used is a cost-benefit analysis, accounting for all direct medical costs in diagnosing and treating patients suspected of leptospirosis. Outcomes are measured in length of fever after treatment which is then converted to productivity losses to capture the full economic costs.
Findings: Empirical doxycycline treatment was the most efficient strategy, being both the least costly alternative and the one that resulted in the shortest duration of fever. The limited sensitivity of all three diagnostic tests implied that their use to guide treatment was not cost-effective. The most influential parameter driving these results was the cost of treating patients with complications for patients who did not receive adequate treatment as a result of incorrect diagnosis or a strategy of no-antibiotic-treatment.
Conclusions: Clinicians should continue treating suspected cases of leptospirosis on an empirical basis. This conclusion holds true as long as policy makers are not prioritizing the reduction of use of antibiotics, in which case the use of the latex test would be the most efficient strategy.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Article Number: e610
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000610

Record 199 of 726
Author(s): Pillas, D (Pillas, Demetris); Hoggart, CJ (Hoggart, Clive J.); Evans, DM (Evans, David M.); O'Reilly, PF (O'Reilly, Paul F.); Sipila, K (Sipila, Kirsi); Lahdesmaki, R (Lahdesmaki, Raija); Millwood, IY (Millwood, Iona Y.); Kaakinen, M (Kaakinen, Marika); Netuveli, G (Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan); Blane, D (Blane, David); Charoen, P (Charoen, Pimphen); Sovio, U (Sovio, Ulla); Pouta, A (Pouta, Anneli); Freimer, N (Freimer, Nelson); Hartikainen, AL (Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa); Laitinen, J (Laitinen, Jaana); Vaara, S (Vaara, Sarianna); Glaser, B (Glaser, Beate); Crawford, P (Crawford, Peter); Timpson, NJ (Timpson, Nicholas J.); Ring, SM (Ring, Susan M.); Deng, GH (Deng, Guohong); Zhang, WH (Zhang, Weihua); McCarthy, MI (McCarthy, Mark I.); Deloukas, P (Deloukas, Panos); Peltonen, L (Peltonen, Leena); Elliott, P (Elliott, Paul); Coin, LJM (Coin, Lachlan J. M.); Smith, GD (Smith, George Davey); Jarvelin, MR (Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta)
Title: Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Associated with Primary Tooth Development during Infancy
Source: PLOS GENETICS, 6 (2): Art. No. e1000856 FEB 2010
Abstract: Tooth development is a highly heritable process which relates to other growth and developmental processes, and which interacts with the development of the entire craniofacial complex. Abnormalities of tooth development are common, with tooth agenesis being the most common developmental anomaly in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study of time to first tooth eruption and number of teeth at one year in 4,564 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966) and 1,518 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We identified 5 loci at P<5x10(-8), and 5 with suggestive association (P<5x10(-6)). The loci included several genes with links to tooth and other organ development (KCNJ2, EDA, HOXB2, RAD51L1, IGF2BP1, HMGA2, MSRB3). Genes at four of the identified loci are implicated in the development of cancer. A variant within the HOXB gene cluster associated with occlusion defects requiring orthodontic treatment by age 31 years.
ISSN: 1553-7390
Article Number: e1000856
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000856

Record 200 of 726
Author(s): Wongsamitkul, N (Wongsamitkul, Nisa); Sirianant, L (Sirianant, Lalida); Muanprasat, C (Muanprasat, Chatchai); Chatsudthipong, V (Chatsudthipong, Varanuj)
Title: A Plant-Derived Hydrolysable Tannin Inhibits CFTR Chloride Channel: A Potential Treatment of Diarrhea
Source: PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH, 27 (3): 490-497 MAR 2010
Abstract: The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of actions of penta-m-digalloyl-glucose (PDG), a hydrolysable tannin extracted from Chinese gallnut, on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR).
Fisher rat thyroid cells stably expressing human CFTR (FRT cells) and human intestinal T84 cells were used as cell models to investigate the effects of PDG on chloride secretion using short-circuit current analysis. The mechanisms by which PDG affected chloride secretion were also examined. Finally, in vivo antidiarrheal efficacy and effects of PDG on intestinal fluid absorption were evaluated in mouse closed-loop models.
In FRT cells, apical chloride current induced by forskolin, CPT-cAMP and apigenin were reversibly inhibited by PDG (IC50 similar to 10 A mu M) without effects on intracellular cAMP content and cell viability. Similarly, in T84 cells, PDG effectively inhibited chloride secretion induced by forskolin and cholera toxin. However, it had no effect on calcium-induced chloride secretion. In mice, a single intraluminal injection of PDG (0.6 mg/kg) reduced cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion by 75% with no effect on intestinal fluid absorption.
PDG represents a new class of CFTR inhibitors. Further development of this class of compounds may provide a new therapeutic intervention for diarrhea.
ISSN: 0724-8741
DOI: 10.1007/s11095-009-0040-y

Record 201 of 726
Author(s): Anantachaisilp, S (Anantachaisilp, Suranan); Smith, SM (Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo); Treetong, A (Treetong, Alongkot); Pratontep, S (Pratontep, Sirapat); Puttipipatkhachorn, S (Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit); Ruktanonchai, UR (Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong)
Title: Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution
Source: NANOTECHNOLOGY, 21 (12): Art. No. 125102 MAR 26 2010
Abstract: Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of gamma-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 (R) as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the gamma-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the H-1-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of gamma-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the H-1-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in gamma-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in gamma-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of gamma-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of gamma-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of gamma-oryzanol and lipids (solid and liquid) inside the lipid nanoparticle systems are proposed.
ISSN: 0957-4484
Article Number: 125102
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/21/12/125102

Record 202 of 726
Author(s): Watcharatanyatip, K (Watcharatanyatip, Kamolwan); Boonmoh, S (Boonmoh, Sirikwan); Chaichoun, K (Chaichoun, Kridsada); Songserm, T (Songserm, Taweesak); Woratanti, M (Woratanti, Mingkhwan); Dharakul, T (Dharakul, Tararaj)
Title: Multispecies detection of antibodies to influenza A viruses by a double-antigen sandwich ELISA
Source: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS, 163 (2): 238-243 FEB 2010
Abstract: A double-antigen sandwich ELISA was developed for the detection of antibodies to influenza A viruses. A recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of influenza A virus was used as a capture antigen and an HRP-conjugate for detecting the antibodies. A total of 125 serum samples from birds of different species including chickens, geese. open-billed storks, Khaki Campbell ducks, lesser whistling ducks, and pigeons with known antibodies were tested by ELISA. The sensitivity and the specificity of ELISA were found to be 98% and 97.3%, respectively. The assay was able to detect the presence of influenza A antibodies as early as the fourth day post-inoculation in ducks infected experimentally with influenza A (H5N1) virus. Excellent agreement (97.6%) was obtained between this sandwich ELISA and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests (kappa = 0.95). The double-antigen sandwich ELISA correlated well with a commercial avian influenza (AI) multispecies ELISA and was slightly more sensitive than the AI multispecies ELISA. These findings indicate that the double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on rNP may offer an effective screening method for serodiagnosis of influenza A virus. The double-antigen sandwich ELISA also enables the detection of antibodies to influenza A viruses in different species without the need for species-specific secondary antibodies. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0166-0934
DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.09.027

Record 203 of 726
Author(s): Wanitphakdeedecha, R (Wanitphakdeedecha, R.); Nguyen, TH (Nguyen, T. H.); Chen, TM (Chen, T. M.)
Title: Unit cost of Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit
Abstract: Background
Appropriate pricing for medical services of not-for-profit hospital is necessary. The prices should be fair to the public and should be high enough to cover the operative costs of the organization.
The purpose of this study was to determine the cost and unit cost of medical services performed at the Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit (MDU), Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas - MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX from the healthcare provider's perspective.
MDU costs were retrieved from the Financial Department for fiscal year 2006. The patients' statistics were acquired from medical records for the same period. Unit cost calculation was based on the official method of hospital accounting.
The overall unit cost for each patient visit was $673.99 United States dollar (USD). The detailed unit cost of nurse visit, new patient visit, follow-up visit, consultation, Mohs and non-Mohs procedure were, respectively, $368.27, $580.09, $477.82, $585.52, $1,086.12 and $858.23 USD. With respect to a Mohs visit, the unit cost per lesion and unit cost per stage were $867.89 and $242.30 USD respectively.
Results from this retrospective study provide information that may be used for pricing strategy and resource allocation by the administrative board of MDU.
ISSN: 0926-9959
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03440.x

Record 204 of 726
Author(s): Srirattana, K (Srirattana, Kanokwan); Lorthongpanich, C (Lorthongpanich, Chanchao); Laowtammathron, C (Laowtammathron, Chuti); Imsoonthornruksa, S (Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth); Ketudat-Cairns, M (Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena); Phermthai, T (Phermthai, Tatsanee); Nagai, T (Nagai, Takashi); Parnpai, R (Parnpai, Rangsun)
Title: Effect of Donor Cell Types on Developmental Potential of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Cloned Embryos
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of donor cell types on the developmental potential and quality of cloned swamp buffalo embryos in comparison with cloned cattle embryos. Fetal fibroblasts (FFs), ear fibroblasts (EFs), granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) were used as the donor cells in both buffalo and cattle. The cloned cattle or buffalo embryos were produced by fusion of the individual donor cells with enucleated cattle or buffalo oocytes, respectively. The reconstructed (cloned) embryos and in vitro matured oocytes without enucleation were parthenogenetically activated (PA) and cultured for 7 days. Their developmental ability to the blastocyst stage was evaluated. The total number of trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells and the ICM ratio in each blastocyst,,vas determined by differential staining as an indicator of embryo quality. The fusion rate of CCs with enucleated oocytes was significantly lower than for those of other donor cell types both in cattle and buffalo. The rates of cleavage and development to the 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages of cloned embryos derived from all donor cell types did not significantly differ within the same species. However, the cleavage rate of cloned cattle embryos derived from FFs,vas significantly, higher than those of cattle PA and cloned buffalo embryos. The blastocyst rates of cloned cattle embryos, except for the ones derived from CCs, were significantly higher than those of cloned buffalo embryos. In buffalo, only cloned embryos derived from CCs showed a significantly higher blastocyst rate than that of PA embryos. In contrast, all the cloned cattle embryos showed significantly higher blastocyst rates than that of PA embryos. There was no difference in ICM ratio among any of the blastocysts derived from any of the donor cell types and PA embryos in both species. FFs, EFs, GCs and CCs had similar potentials to support development of cloned cattle and buffalo embryos to the blastocyst stage with the same quality.
ISSN: 0916-8818

Record 205 of 726
Author(s): Geibprasert, S (Geibprasert, Sasikhan); Krings, T (Krings, Timo)
Title: Hydrocephalus in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations RESPONSE
Source: JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY, 112 (3): 696-696 MAR 2010
ISSN: 0022-3085

Record 206 of 726
Author(s): Tunpiboonsak, S (Tunpiboonsak, Suda); Mongkolrob, R (Mongkolrob, Rungrawee); Kitudomsub, K (Kitudomsub, Kaniskul); Thanwatanaying, P (Thanwatanaying, Phawatwaristh); Kiettipirodom, W (Kiettipirodom, Witcha); Tungboontina, Y (Tungboontina, Yanin); Tungpradabkul, S (Tungpradabkul, Sumalee)
Title: Role of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Polyphosphate Kinase in an Oxidative Stress Response, Motilities, and Biofilm Formation
Source: JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY, 48 (1): 63-70 FEB 2010
Abstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a motile and rod Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is an intracellular pathogen and that motility is generally crucial for their survival in a natural environment and for systemic infection inside a host. We report here a role of B. pseudomallei polyphosphate kinase in virulence, such as an oxidative stress response, motilities and biofilm formation. The polyphosphate kinase (ppk) mutant is susceptible to hydrogen peroxide in an oxidative stress condition, unable to perform swimming, swarming motilities, and has lower density biofilm forming capacity than the wild-type strain. We also demonstrated that both polyphosphate kinase and motile flagella are essential and independently involved in biofilm formation. The B. pseudomallei flagellin (fliC) mutant and B. mallei, a nonmotile species, are shown to produce higher density biofilm formation than the ppk mutant, but less than wild type B. pseudomallei.
ISSN: 1225-8873
DOI: 10.1007/s12275-010-9138-5

Record 207 of 726
Author(s): Chabe, M (Chabe, Magali); Herbreteau, V (Herbreteau, Vincent); Hugot, JP (Hugot, Jean-Pierre); Bouzard, N (Bouzard, Noemi); Deruyter, L (Deruyter, Lucie); Morand, S (Morand, Serge); Dei-Cas, E (Dei-Cas, Eduardo)
Title: Pneumocystis carinii and Pneumocystis wakefieldiae in Wild Rattus norvegicus Trapped in Thailand
Abstract: This work reports for the first time the presence of two Pneumocystis species in wild Rattus norvegicus specimens from Thailand. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in 57.7% (15/26) wild rats without apparent association with typical pneumocystosis. Pneumocystis carinii was found alone in five rats (19.2%), Pneumocystis wakefieldiae was detected alone in six rats (23.1%), and two rats were infected by both species (7.7%). In addition, a new P. wakefieldiae variant sequence has been identified in three wild R. norvegicus specimens caught in the same geographical area. The high frequency of Pneumocystis in wild rats documented in this study and the apparent scarcity of severe pneumocystosis were consistent with an efficient circulation of rat Pneumocystis species in ecosystems.
ISSN: 1066-5234
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2009.00465.x

Record 208 of 726
Author(s): Manuyakorn, A (Manuyakorn, Ananya); Paulus, R (Paulus, Rebecca); Farrell, J (Farrell, James); Dawson, NA (Dawson, Nicole A.); Tze, S (Tze, Sheila); Cheung-Lau, G (Cheung-Lau, Gardenia); Hines, OJ (Hines, Oscar Joe); Reber, H (Reber, Howard); Seligson, DB (Seligson, David B.); Horvath, S (Horvath, Steve); Kurdistani, SK (Kurdistani, Siavash K.); Guha, C (Guha, Chandhan); Dawson, DW (Dawson, David W.)
Title: Cellular Histone Modification Patterns Predict Prognosis and Treatment Response in Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Results From RTOG 9704
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 28 (8): 1358-1365 MAR 10 2010
Abstract: Purpose Differences in cellular levels of histone modifications have predicted clinical outcome in certain cancers. Here, we studied the prognostic and predictive value of three histone modifications in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Methods Tissue microarrays (TMAs) from two pancreatic adenocarcinoma cohorts were examined, including those from a 195-patient cohort from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial RTOG 9704, a multicenter, phase III, randomized treatment trial comparing adjuvant gemcitabine with fluorouracil and a 140-patient cohort of patients with stage I or II cancer from University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center. Immunohistochemistry was performed for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4me2), histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), and histone H3 lysine 18 acetylation (H3K18ac). Positive tumor cell staining for each histone modification was used to classify patients into low-and high-staining groups, which were related to clinicopathologic parameters and clinical outcome measures.
Results Low cellular levels of H3K4me2, H3K9me2, or H3K18ac were each significant and independent predictors of poor survival in univariate and multivariate models, and combined low levels of H3K4me2 and/or H3K18ac were the most significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.93; 95% Cl, 1.78 to 4.82) in the University of California, Los Angeles cohort. In subgroup analyses, histone levels were predictive of survival specifically for those patients with node-negative cancer or for those patients receiving adjuvant fluorouracil, but not gemcitabine, in RTOG 9704.
Conclusion Cellular levels of histone modifications define previously unrecognized subsets of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma with distinct epigenetic phenotypes and clinical outcomes and represent prognostic and predictive biomarkers that could inform clinical decisions, including the use of fluorouracil chemotherapy.
ISSN: 0732-183X
DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.5639

Record 209 of 726
Author(s): Srisomsap, C (Srisomsap, Chantragan); Sawangareetrakul, P (Sawangareetrakul, Phannee); Subhasitanont, P (Subhasitanont, Pantipa); Chokchaichamnankit, D (Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee); Chiablaem, K (Chiablaem, Khajeelak); Bhudhisawasdi, V (Bhudhisawasdi, Vaharabhongsa); Wongkham, S (Wongkham, Sopit); Svasti, J (Svasti, Jisnuson)
Title: Proteomic Studies of Cholangiocarcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Secretomes
Abstract: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur with relatively high incidence in Thailand. The secretome, proteins secreted from cancer cells, are potentially useful as biomarkers of the diseases. Proteomic analysis was performed on the secreted proteins of cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA-1) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-S102, HepG2, SK-Hep-1, and Alexander) cell lines. The secretomes of the five cancer cell lines were analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with LC/MS/MS. Sixty-eight proteins were found to be expressed only in HuCCA-1. Examples include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (lipocalin 2), laminin 5 beta 3, cathepsin D precursor, desmoplakin, annexin IV variant, and annexin A5. Immunoblotting was used to confirm the presence of lipocalin 2 in conditioned media and cell lysate of 5 cell lines. The results showed that lipocalin 2 was a secreted protein which is expressed only in the conditioned media of the cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Study of lipocalin 2 expression in different types of cancer and normal tissues from cholangiocarcinoma patients showed that lipocalin 2 was expressed only in the cancer tissues. We suggest that lipocalin 2 may be a potential biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma.
ISSN: 1110-7243
Article Number: 437143
DOI: 10.1155/2010/437143

Record 210 of 726
Author(s): Jutapakdeegul, N (Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan); Afadlal, S (Afadlal, Szeifoul); Polaboon, N (Polaboon, Nongnuch); Phansuwan-Pujito, P (Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri); Govitrapong, P (Govitrapong, Piyarat)
Title: Repeated restraint stress and corticosterone injections during late pregnancy alter GAP-43 expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rat pups
Abstract: In the offspring of prenatal stress animals, overactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are consistent finding. However, little was known about how prenatal stress can permanently alter developmental trajectories of pup's brain. Growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is a presynaptic membrane phosphoprotein whose expression increases during developmental events such as axonal outgrowth or remodeling and synaptogenesis. Phosphorylation of GAP-43 by protein kinase C was correlated with enhanced axonal growth and transmitter release. In adult animals, increase of GAP-43 correlated with monoaminergic deficit in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study examines the effects of repeated maternal restraint stress on the level of GAP-43 in the brain of rat pups. The results showed that prenatal stress significantly increased GAP-43 level in the PFC of rat pup during PND 7-14 as compared to control but not significant difference when observed at PND 21. Increased GAP-43 expression was also observed in the pup's hippocampus during the same postnatal periods. However, when observed at PND 60, pups born from stressed mother showed a significant lower (p < 0.001) GAP-43 expression as compare with control group. These changes indicate the direct effect of corticosteroid hormone, since repeated maternal injection with corticosterone (CORT, 40 mg/kg) during GD 14-21 also gave the same results. PND 7-14 is the peak period of synaptogenesis in these brain areas and abnormal axon sprouting and reorganization may lead to a defect in synaptic pruning at later stage of life. The results suggested that maternal stress is harmful to the developing brain and upregulation of GAP-43 indicated a protective mechanism against the toxicity of maternal stress hormone. Prenatal stress alter the normal developmental trajectories in the pup's brain May underlies the mechanism link between early life stress and neuropsychopathology in later life. (C) 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0736-5748
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2009.09.003

Record 211 of 726
Author(s): Manosuthi, W (Manosuthi, W.); Chetchotisakd, P (Chetchotisakd, P.); Nolen, TL (Nolen, T. L.); Wallace, D (Wallace, D.); Sungkanuparph, S (Sungkanuparph, S.); Anekthananon, T (Anekthananon, T.); Supparatpinyo, K (Supparatpinyo, K.); Pappas, PG (Pappas, P. G.); Larsen, RA (Larsen, R. A.); Filler, SG (Filler, S. G.); Andes, D (Andes, D.)
Group Author(s): BAMSG 3 01 Study Team
Title: Monitoring and impact of fluconazole serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentration in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis-infected patients
Source: HIV MEDICINE, 11 (4): 276-281 APR 2010
Abstract: Objectives
The aim of the present study was to assess fluconazole pharmacokinetic measures in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and the correlation of these measures with clinical outcomes of invasive fungal infections.
A randomized trial was conducted in HIV-infected patients receiving three different regimens of fluconazole plus amphotericin B (AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. Regimens included fluconazole 400 mg/day+AmB (AmB+Fluc400) or fluconazole 800 mg/day+AmB (AmB+Fluc800) (14 days followed by fluconazole alone at the randomized dose for 56 days); or AmB alone for 14 days followed by fluconazole 400 mg/day for 56 days. Serum (at 24 h after dosing) and CSF samples were taken at baseline and days 14 and 70 (serum only) for fluconazole measurement, using gas-liquid chromatography.
Sixty-four treated patients had fluconazole measurements: 11 in the AmB group, 12 in the AmB+Fluc400 group and 41 in the AmB+Fluc800 group. Day 14 serum concentration geometric means were 24.7 mg/L for AmB+Fluc400 and 37.0 mg/L for AmB+Fluc800. Correspondingly, CSF concentration geometric means were 25.1 mg/L and 32.7 mg/L. Day 14 Serum and CSF concentrations were highly correlated with AmB+Fluc800 (P < 0.001, r=0.873) and AmB+Fluc400 (P=0.005, r=0.943). Increased serum area under the curve (AUC) appears to be associated with decreased mortality at day 70 (P=0.061, odds ratio=2.19) as well as with increased study composite endpoint success at days 42 and 70 (P=0.081, odds ratio=2.25 and 0.058, 2.89, respectively).
High fluconazole dosage (800 mg/day) for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis was associated with high serum and CSF fluconazole concentration. Overall, high serum and CSF concentration appear to be associated with increased survival and primary composite endpoint success.
ISSN: 1464-2662
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00778.x

Record 212 of 726
Author(s): Domrongkitchaiporn, S (Domrongkitchaiporn, S.); Disthabanchong, S (Disthabanchong, S.); Cheawchanthanakij, R (Cheawchanthanakij, R.); Niticharoenpong, K (Niticharoenpong, K.); Stitchantrakul, W (Stitchantrakul, W.); Charoenphandhu, N (Charoenphandhu, N.); Krishnamra, N (Krishnamra, N.)
Title: Oral Phosphate Supplementation Corrects Hypophosphatemia and Normalizes Plasma FGF23 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 Levels in Women with Chronic Metabolic Acidosis
Abstract: Background: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) is known to induce renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia by enhancing bone resorption and inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption. However, nothing is known regarding changes in the plasma levels of phosphate-regulating hormones during CMA, especially in humans with normal kidney function.
Methods: Fifteen healthy Thai female volunteers were given NH4Cl orally for 7 days to induce CMA with or without oral phosphate supplementation. Blood and 24-h urine specimens were collected prior to and after CMA induction. Plasma concentrations and fractional excretion of calcium and inorganic phosphate as well as plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, 25(OH)D-3, 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were determined.
Results: CMA led to hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia with increases in the fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Plasma concentrations of FGF23, 25(OH)D-3 and iPTH were decreased, whereas that of 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 was increased. After oral phosphate supplementation, CMA-induced changes in the concentrations of the studied ions, FGF23 and 25(OH)D-3, but not those of 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 and iPTH, were diminished.
Conclusions: The CMA-induced hypophosphatemia was likely to initiate a negative feedback response, thereby leading to reduction in the plasma levels of hyperphosphaturic hormones, FGF23 and PTH. An increase in the plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D-3 level, despite diminishing 25(OH)D-3 storage pool, may help enhance the intestinal phosphate absorption. Oral phosphate supplementation abolished the effects of CMA on FGF23 and 25(OH)D-3 levels, suggesting that the plasma phosphate concentration is the primary regulator of the plasma levels of these hormones during CMA.
ISSN: 0947-7349
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1202791

Record 213 of 726
Author(s): Permpoon, R (Permpoon, Rattiya); Thanaphum, S (Thanaphum, Sujinda)
Title: Isolation and characterization of oligomerization domain I and II coding regions of doublesex genes in agricultural fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Source: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, 107 (1): 121-126 2010
Abstract: Bactrocera fruit flies are ranked among the most destructive pests of the worldwide fruit and vegetable trades. Coding regions of two oligomerization domains within doublesex (dsx) genes were determined in Bactrocera dorsalis ( oriental fruit fly) and B. correcta ( guava fruit fly). Resulting sequences revealed a high degree of similarity at both nucleotide and putative amino acid levels in the genus Bactrocera. Conservation of the DNA-binding DM motif and several known molecular features within the domains suggest a presence of strong purifying selection on the DSX proteins. Topology of the phylogenetic gene trees and deduced amino acid substitution patterns suggest that the coding region sequences of the two domains are diversified in concert parallel with the species differentiation.
ISSN: 1210-5759

Record 214 of 726
Author(s): Pinchai, N (Pinchai, Nadthanan); Juvvadi, PR (Juvvadi, Praveen Rao); Fortwendel, JR (Fortwendel, Jarrod R.); Perfect, BZ (Perfect, B. Zachary); Rogg, LE (Rogg, Luise E.); Asfaw, YG (Asfaw, Yohannes G.); Steinbach, WJ (Steinbach, William J.)
Title: The Aspergillus fumigatus P-Type Golgi Apparatus Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase PmrA Is Involved in Cation Homeostasis and Cell Wall Integrity but Is Not Essential for Pathogenesis
Source: EUKARYOTIC CELL, 9 (3): 472-476 MAR 2010
Abstract: The Aspergillus fumigatus Delta pmrA (Golgi apparatus Ca2+/Mn2+ P-type ATPase) strain has osmotically suppressible basal growth defects and cationic tolerance associated with increased expression of calcineurin pathway genes. Despite increased beta-glucan and chitin content, it is hypersensitive to cell wall inhibitors but remains virulent, suggesting a role for PmrA in cation homeostasis and cell wall integrity.
ISSN: 1535-9778
DOI: 10.1128/EC.00378-09

Record 215 of 726
Author(s): Maude, RJ (Maude, Richard J.); Woodrow, CJ (Woodrow, Charles J.); White, LJ (White, Lisa J.)
Title: Artemisinin Antimalarials: Preserving the "Magic Bullet"
Source: DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, 71 (1): 12-19 Sp. Iss. SI FEB 2010
Abstract: The artemisinins are the most effective antimalarial drugs known. They possess a remarkably wide therapeutic index. These agents have been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for more than 2,000 years but were not subjected to scientific scrutiny until the 1970s. The first formal clinical trials of the artemisinins, and the development of methods for their industrial scale production, followed rapidly. A decade later, Chinese scientists shared their findings with the rest of the world; since then, a significant body of international trial evidence has confirmed these drugs to be far superior to any available alternatives. In particular, they have the ability to rapidly kill a broad range of asexual parasite stages at safe concentrations that are consistently achievable via standard dosing regimens. As their half-life is very short, there was also thought to be a low risk of resistance. These discoveries coincided with the appearance and spread of resistance to all the other major classes of antimalarials. As a result, the artemisinins now form an essential element of recommended first-line antimalarial treatment regimens worldwide. To minimize the risk of artemisinin resistance, they are recommended to be used to treat uncomplicated malaria in combination with other antimalarials as artemisinin combination therapies (ACTS). Their rollout has resulted in documented reductions in malaria prevalence in a number of African and Asian countries. Unfortunately, there are already worrisome early signs of artemisinin resistance appearing in western Cambodia. If this resistance were to spread, it would be disastrous for malaria control efforts worldwide. The enormous challenge for the international community is how to avert this catastrophe and preserve the effectiveness of this antimalarial "magic bullet". Drug Dev Res, 71: 12-19, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ISSN: 0272-4391
DOI: 10.1002/ddr.20344

Record 216 of 726
Author(s): McGready, R (McGready, Rose); Nosten, F (Nosten, Francois)
Title: Which Drug is Effective and Safe for Acute Malaria in Pregnancy? Reviewing the Evidence
Source: DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, 71 (1): 56-68 Sp. Iss. SI FEB 2010
Abstract: During pregnancy, a woman living or travelling in a malaria endemic area is more at risk of contracting the disease and developing a severe infection and dying than a non-pregnant woman. Despite this increased morbidity and mortality in pregnancy, there are almost no studies on which to base recommendations on the use of antimalarial drugs in this vulnerable group. This is because, paradoxically, the emphasis is often put on the safety of the unborn child rather than that of the infested mother. As a result of this neglect, tens of thousands of pregnant women (and their fetuses) are dying every year of a very preventable and treatable infection. In recent years, some trials have been conducted, especially in areas of high resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in South East Asia. The results show that quinine plus clindamycin is the treatment of choice in the first trimester, while artemisinin treatment should be used in the second and third trimesters in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. For severe malaria, parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice. However these studies have also shown that the pharmacokinetic properties of most antimalarials are altered during gestation and that the doses used in non-pregnant adults are often not adapted to pregnancy. Urgent efforts are required to optimize the treatment of malaria in pregnancy. Drug Dev Res 71:56-68, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ISSN: 0272-4391
DOI: 10.1002/ddr.20348

Record 217 of 726
Author(s): Boonaiam, S (Boonaiam, S.); Chaiprasert, A (Chaiprasert, A.); Prammananan, T (Prammananan, T.); Leechawengwongs, M (Leechawengwongs, M.)
Title: Genotypic analysis of genes associated with isoniazid and ethionamide resistance in MDR-TB isolates from Thailand
Abstract: P>Nucleotide sequences of genes conferring isoniazid resistance (katG, inhA, oxyR-ahpC and ndh) and ethionamide resistance (ethA) in 160 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Thailand were analysed. Mutations in the katG gene were found in 129 isolates, predominantly at codon 315, which was mutated in 127 isolates. Twenty-two isolates had mutations in the inhA promoter and coding region. Mutations in the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region and in ndh were detected in four and one isolate(s), respectively. Of 24 ethionamide-resistant isolates, 13 had mutations in the ethA gene. However, these mutations were dispersed along the entire gene, with no codon predominating significantly.
ISSN: 1198-743X
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02838.x

Record 218 of 726
Author(s): Graves, N (Graves, Nicholas); Harbarth, S (Harbarth, Stephan); Beyersmann, J (Beyersmann, Jan); Barnett, A (Barnett, Adrian); Halton, K (Halton, Kate); Cooper, B (Cooper, Ben)
Title: Estimating the Cost of Health Care-Associated Infections: Mind Your p's and q's
Source: CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 50 (7): 1017-1021 APR 1 2010
Abstract: Monetary valuations of the economic cost of health care-associated infections (HAIs) are important for decision making and should be estimated accurately. Erroneously high estimates of costs, designed to jolt decision makers into action, may do more harm than good in the struggle to attract funding for infection control. Expectations among policy makers might be raised, and then they are disappointed when the reduction in the number of HAIs does not yield the anticipated cost saving. For this article, we critically review the field and discuss 3 questions. Why measure the cost of an HAI? What outcome should be used to measure the cost of an HAI? What is the best method for making this measurement? The aim is to encourage researchers to collect and then disseminate information that accurately guides decisions about the economic value of expanding or changing current infection control activities.
ISSN: 1058-4838
DOI: 10.1086/651110

Record 219 of 726
Author(s): Nakamura, K (Nakamura, Kenta); Schwartz, BS (Schwartz, Brian S.); Lindegardh, N (Lindegardh, Niklas); Keh, C (Keh, Chris); Guglielmo, BJ (Guglielmo, B. Joseph)
Title: Possible Neuropsychiatric Reaction to High-Dose Oseltamivir during Acute 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Infection
Source: CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 50 (7): E47-E49 APR 1 2010
Abstract: The safety of high-dose oseltamivir during treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection for critically ill patients is unknown. Here we report on a case patient with severe, delayed-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms after administration of high-dose oseltamivir. Clinicians should be vigilant to the possible increased risk of complications associated with high-dose oseltamivir therapy for 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection.
ISSN: 1058-4838
DOI: 10.1086/651166

Record 220 of 726
Author(s): Kalpravidh, RW (Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W.); Siritanaratkul, N (Siritanaratkul, Noppadol); Insain, P (Insain, Praphaipit); Charoensakdi, R (Charoensakdi, Radya); Panichkul, N (Panichkul, Narumol); Hatairaktham, S (Hatairaktham, Suneerat); Srichairatanakool, S (Srichairatanakool, Somdet); Phisalaphong, C (Phisalaphong, Chada); Rachmilewitz, E (Rachmilewitz, Eliezer); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat)
Title: Improvement in oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids
Source: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, 43 (4-5): 424-429 MAR 2010
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the hematological profile, oxidative stress, and antioxidant parameters in beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids for 12 months.
Design and methods: Twenty-one beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients were given 2 capsules of 250 mg each of curcuminoids (a total of 500 mg) daily for 12 months. Blood was collected every 2 months during treatment and 3 months after withdrawal and was determined for complete blood count, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in serum.
Results: The increased oxidative stress in beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients was shown by higher levels of MDA, SOD, GSH-Px in RBC, serum NTBI, and lower level of RBC GSH. Curcuminoids administration resulted in improvement of all the measured parameters as long as they were administered. After 3 months withdrawal of treatment, all parameters returned close to baseline levels.
Conclusion: Curcuminoids may be used to ameliorate oxidative damage in patients with beta-thalassemia/Hb E disease. (C) 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0009-9120
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.10.057

Record 221 of 726
Author(s): Nettuwakul, C (Nettuwakul, Choochai); Sawasdee, N (Sawasdee, Nunghathai); Yenchitsomanus, PT (Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai)
Title: Rapid detection of solute carrier family 4, member 1 (SLC4A1) mutations and polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis
Source: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, 43 (4-5): 497-504 MAR 2010
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for detection of SLC4A1 Mutations and polymorphisms.
Design and methods: The HRM method was optimized for detection of 18 known SLC4A1 variants. It was then used for analysis of 16 blind DNA samples highly enriched with two common mutations, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) and band 3 Bangkok 1 (G701D), to compare the results with that of the conventional procedures.
Results: The HRM method was able to detect all IS SLC4A1 variants. In the samples in which homozygous wild-type and homozygous variant could not be distinguished by difference plots, they were spiked with a sample carrying known homozygous genotype, resulting in their clear differentiation. The HRM method had 100% efficiency for detection of mutations in the blind DNA samples, when compared with that of the conventional techniques.
Conclusions: The developed HRM method is efficient and reproducible for detection of SLC4A1 mutations and polymorphisms. (C) 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0009-9120
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.12.010

Record 222 of 726
Author(s): Panich, U (Panich, Uraiwan); Kongtaphan, K (Kongtaphan, Kamolratana); Onkoksoong, T (Onkoksoong, Tassanee); Jaemsak, K (Jaemsak, Kannika); Phadungrakwittaya, R (Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana); Thaworn, A (Thaworn, Athiwat); Akarasereenont, P (Akarasereenont, Pravit); Wongkajornsilp, A (Wongkajornsilp, Adisak)
Title: Modulation of antioxidant defense by Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extracts correlates with their inhibition of UVA-induced melanogenesis
Source: CELL BIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY, 26 (2): 103-116 APR 2010
Abstract: Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is suggested to contribute to melanogenesis through promoting cellular oxidative stress and impairing antioxidant defenses. An overproduction of melanin can be associated with melanoma skin cancer and hyperpigmentation. Therefore, developing effective antimelanogenic agents is of importance. Alpinia galanga (AG) and Curcuma aromatica (CA) are traditional medicinal plants widely used for skin problems. Hence, this study investigated the antimelanogenic effects of AG and CA extracts (3.8-30 mu g/ml) by assessing tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase mRNA levels, and melanin content in human melanoma cells (G361) exposed to UVA. The roles in protecting against melanogenesis were examined by evaluating their inhibitory effects on UVA-induced cellular oxidative stress and modulation of antioxidant defenses including antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In addition, possible active compounds accountable for biological activities of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric analysis. Our study demonstrated that UVA (8 J/cm(2)) induced both tyrosinase activity and mRNA levels and UVA (16 J/cm(2))-mediated melanin production were suppressed by the AG or CA extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations. Both extracts were able to protect against UVA-induced cellular oxidant formation and depletion of CAT and GPx activities and GSH content in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TLC-densitometric analysis detected the presence of eugenol and curcuminoids in AG and CA, respectively. This is the first report representing promising findings on AG and CA extract-derived antityrosinase properties correlated with their antioxidant potential. Inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defenses might be the mechanisms by which the extracts yield the protective effects on UVA-dependent melanogenesis.
ISSN: 0742-2091
DOI: 10.1007/s10565-009-9121-2

Record 223 of 726
Author(s): Kypraios, T (Kypraios, Theodore); O'Neill, PD (O'Neill, Philip D.); Huang, SS (Huang, Susan S.); Rifas-Shiman, SL (Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.); Cooper, BS (Cooper, Ben S.)
Title: Assessing the role of undetected colonization and isolation precautions in reducing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission in intensive care units
Source: BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 10: Art. No. 29 FEB 16 2010
Abstract: Background: Screening and isolation are central components of hospital methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control policies. Their prevention of patient-to-patient spread depends on minimizing undetected and unisolated MRSA-positive patient days. Estimating these MRSA-positive patient days and the reduction in transmission due to isolation presents a major methodological challenge, but is essential for assessing both the value of existing control policies and the potential benefit of new rapid MRSA detection technologies. Recent methodological developments have made it possible to estimate these quantities using routine surveillance data.
Methods: Colonization data from admission and weekly nares cultures were collected from eight single-bed adult intensive care units (ICUs) over 17 months. Detected MRSA-positive patients were isolated using single rooms and barrier precautions. Data were analyzed using stochastic transmission models and model fitting was performed within a Bayesian framework using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, imputing unobserved MRSA carriage events.
Results: Models estimated the mean percent of colonized-patient-days attributed to undetected carriers as 14.1% (95% CI (11.7, 16.5)) averaged across ICUs. The percent of colonized-patient-days attributed to patients awaiting results averaged 7.8% (6.2, 9.2). Overall, the ratio of estimated transmission rates from unisolated MRSA-positive patients and those under barrier precautions was 1.34 (0.45, 3.97), but varied widely across ICUs.
Conclusions: Screening consistently detected >80% of colonized-patient-days. Estimates of the effectiveness of barrier precautions showed considerable uncertainty, but in all units except burns/general surgery and one cardiac surgery ICU, the best estimates were consistent with reductions in transmission associated with barrier precautions.
ISSN: 1471-2334
Article Number: 29
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-29

Record 224 of 726
Author(s): Koh, GCKW (Koh, Gavin C. K. W.); Maude, RJ (Maude, Richard J.); Paris, DH (Paris, Daniel H.); Newton, PN (Newton, Paul N.); Blacksell, SD (Blacksell, Stuart D.)
Title: Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus
Abstract: Scrub typhus is transmitted by trombiculid mites and is endemic to East and Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The clinical syndrome classically consists of a fever, rash, and eschar, but scrub typhus also commonly presents as an undifferentiated fever that requires laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis, usually by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. We discuss the limitations of IFA, debate the value of other methods based oil antigen detection and nucleic acid amplification, and outline recommendations for future study.
ISSN: 0002-9637
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0233

Record 225 of 726
Author(s): White, LJ (White, Lisa J.); Schukken, YH (Schukken, Ynte H.); Dogan, B (Dogan, Belgin); Green, L (Green, Laura); Dopfer, D (Doepfer, Doerte); Chappell, MJ (Chappell, Mike J.); Medley, GF (Medley, Graham F.)
Title: Modelling the dynamics of intramammary E. coli infections in dairy cows: understanding mechanisms that distinguish transient from persistent infections
Source: VETERINARY RESEARCH, 41 (2): Art. No. 13 MAR-APR 2010
Abstract: The majority of intramammary infections with Escherichia coli in dairy cows result in transient infections with duration of about 10 days or less, although more persistent infections (2 months or longer) have been identified. We apply a mathematical model to explore the role of an intracellular mammary epithelial cell reservoir in the dynamics of infection. We included biological knowledge of the bovine immune response and known characteristics of the bacterial population in both transient and persistent infections. The results indicate that varying the survival duration of the intracellular reservoir reproduces the data for both transient and persistent infections. Survival in an intracellular reservoir is the most likely mechanism that ensures persistence of E. coli infections in mammary glands. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of persistent infections is essential to develop preventive and treatment programmes for these important infections in dairy cows.
ISSN: 0928-4249
Article Number: 13
DOI: 10.1051/vetres/2009061

Record 226 of 726
Author(s): Mast, TC (Mast, T. Christopher); Kierstead, L (Kierstead, Lisa); Gupta, SB (Gupta, Swati B.); Nikas, AA (Nikas, Alexander A.); Kallas, EG (Kallas, Esper G.); Novitsky, V (Novitsky, Vladimir); Mbewe, B (Mbewe, Bernard); Pitisuttithum, P (Pitisuttithum, Punee); Schechter, M (Schechter, Mauro); Vardas, E (Vardas, Eftyhia); Wolfe, ND (Wolfe, Nathan D.); Aste-Amezaga, M (Aste-Amezaga, Miguel); Casimiro, DR (Casimiro, Danilo R.); Coplan, P (Coplan, Paul); Straus, WL (Straus, Walter L.); Shiver, JW (Shiver, John W.)
Title: International epidemiology of human pre-existing adenovirus (Ad) type-5, type-6, type-26 and type-36 neutralizing antibodies: Correlates of high Ad5 titers and implications for potential HIV vaccine trials
Source: VACCINE, 28 (4): 950-957 JAN 22 2010
Abstract: Replication-defective adenoviruses have been utilized as candidate HIV vaccine vectors Few studies have described the international epidemiology of pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses We enrolled 1904 participants in a cross-sectional serological survey at seven sites in Africa, Brazil, and Thailand to assess neutralizing antibodies (NA) for adenovirus types Ad5, Ad6, Ad26 and Ad36 Clinical trial samples were used to assess NA titers from the US and Europe The proportions of participants that were negative were 14 8%(Ad5), 31 5%(Ad6),41 2%(Ad26) and 53.6% (Ad36) Adenovirus NA titers varied by geographic location and were higher in non-US and non-European settings, especially Thailand In multivariate logistic regression analysis, geographic setting (non-US and non-European settings) was statistically significantly associated with having higher Ad5 titers, participants from Thailand had the highest odds of having high Ad5 titers (adjusted OR = 3 53,95% CI 224,557) Regardless of location. titers of Ad5NA were the highest and Ad36 NA were the lowest Coincident Ad5/6 titers were lower than either Ad5 or Ad6 titers alone Understanding pre-existing immunity to candidate vaccine vectors may contribute to the evaluation of vaccines in international populations (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd
ISSN: 0264-410X
DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.145

Record 227 of 726
Author(s): Sirachainan, N (Sirachainan, Nongnuch); Sasanakul, W (Sasanakul, Werasak); Visudibhan, A (Visudibhan, Annanit); Chuansumrit, A (Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan); Wongwerawattanakoon, P (Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan); Parapakpenjune, S (Parapakpenjune, Surapan)
Title: Protein C deficiency in Thai children with thromboembolism: A report of clinical presentations and mutation analysis
Source: THROMBOSIS RESEARCH, 125 (2): 200-202 FEB 2010
ISSN: 0049-3848
DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2009.10.016

Record 228 of 726
Author(s): Hongsith, N (Hongsith, Niyom); Wongrat, E (Wongrat, Ekasiddh); Kerdcharoen, T (Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat); Choopun, S (Choopun, Supab)
Title: Sensor response formula for sensor based on ZnO nanostructures
Source: SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, 144 (1): 67-72 JAN 29 2010
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new and general formula to describe ethanol adsorption mechanism underlying the response enhancement of ZnO nanostructure sensors. The derivation of sensor response formula based on basic chemical reaction at the sensor Surface is presented. The formula can be used to explain response enhancement due to effect of metal doping, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface depletion layer. Thus, it can be regarded as a general formula to describe the sensor response characteristics of ZnO sensors. This general formula is a powerful tool for designing ZnO sensor at my desired sensor response. Furthermore, it is reasonable to expand this formula to explain other sensing materials and also to explain for different active gases. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0925-4005
DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2009.10.037

Record 229 of 726
Author(s): Reutrakul, V (Reutrakul, Vichai); Anantachoke, N (Anantachoke, Natthinee); Pohmakotr, M (Pohmakotr, Manat); Jaipetch, T (Jaipetch, Thaworn); Yoosook, C (Yoosook, Chalobon); Kasisit, J (Kasisit, Jittra); Napaswa, C (Napaswa, Chanita); Panthong, A (Panthong, Ampai); Santisuk, T (Santisuk, Thawatchai); Prabpai, S (Prabpai, Samran); Kongsaeree, P (Kongsaeree, Palangpon); Tuchinda, P (Tuchinda, Patoomratana)
Title: Anti-HIV-1 and Anti-Inflammatory Lupanes from the Leaves, Twigs, and Resin of Garcinia hanburyi
Source: PLANTA MEDICA, 76 (4): 368-371 MAR 2010
Abstract: The new lupanes, 2 alpha-acetoxy-3 beta-hydroxy-19 beta-hydrogen-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (2-acetoxyalphitolic acid) (1) and 2 alpha-hydroxy-3 beta-acetoxy-19 beta-hydrogen-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (3-acetoxyalphitolic acid) (2), together with the known betulinic acid (3), betulin (4), and stimasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), isolated from the leaves and twigs of Garcinia hanburyi. Compounds 1-3 were also isolated from the resin of this plant. The structure of 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All of the lupanes (1-4) displayed anti-HIV-1 activities in the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50 values 16.3-116.9 mu g/mL) and syncytium assays (EC50 5.6-73.6 mu g/mL, SI 1.7-3.3). Moreover compounds 1-4 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in an ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced ear edema model.
ISSN: 0032-0943
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1186193

Record 230 of 726
Author(s): Soodchomshom, B (Soodchomshom, Bumned); Tang, IM (Tang, I-Ming); Hoonsawat, R (Hoonsawat, Rassmidara)
Title: Perfect switching of the spin polarization in a ferromagnetic gapless graphene/superconducting gapped graphene junction
Abstract: With the fabrication of gapped graphene, interest in the tunneling spectroscopy in graphene-based FG/SG junctions in which one side consists of a gapless ferro-magnetic graphene (FG) and the other side, of a gapped superconducting graphene (SG) has arisen. The carriers in the gapless (gapped) graphene are 2D relativistic particles having an energy spectrum given by E = root h2 nu(2)(F)k(2) + (m nu(2)(F) (where m nu(2)(F) is the gap and nu(F) is the Fermi velocity). The spin currents in this FG/SG junction are obtained within the framework of the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) formalism. The effects of the superconducting energy gap in SC, of the gap m nu(2)(F), which opened in the superconducting graphene, of the exchange field in FG, of the spin-dependent specular Andreev reflection, of the effective Fermi energy (E-FF) of FG and of the bias voltage across the junction (V) are simulated. It is seen that by adjusting E-FF or V, the spin polarization (defined as SP(%) = 100% x (G(up arrow) - G(down arrow))/(G(up arrow) + G(down arrow))) can be switched from a pure spin up (SP = +100%) state to pure spin down (SP = -100%) state. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0921-4534
DOI: 10.1016/j.physc.2009.09.011

Record 231 of 726
Author(s): Soodchomshom, B (Soodchomshom, Bumned); Tang, IM (Tang, I-Ming); Hoonsawat, R (Hoonsawat, Rassmidara)
Title: Josephson current in a double ferromagnetic layer SG/F-1/F-2/SG graphene sandwich
Abstract: The Josephson current in a double ferromagnetic layer SG/F-1/F-2/SG graphene junction where the SG's are graphene-based s-wave superconductors and the F-1,F-2 are ferromagnetic layers of thicknesses d(1,2) in which the exchange energies are E-ex1,E-2, is studied. The Josephson current in this junction is composed of Cooper pairs formed by quasi particles which are massless Weyl-Dirac electrons. By switching the alignment of the two exchange fields, we find that the Josephson current in the junction can change from being in the pi-state to being in the 0-state. For the case where the magnitudes of the exchange field strength are the same, it is seen that the phase difference dependence of the critical Josephson current in a parallel aligned junction indicated a cross over from a 0-state to pi-state whenever the ferromagnetic barrier strength chi(ex) is equal to (n/2 + 0.25)pi (with n = 1, 2,...). The AP-junction for F-1 = F-2 behaves as if it has no the magnetic barriers, like S/N/S junction. It is also seen that the temperature dependence of the (%) magneto-Josephson current ratio defined as the difference between the critical currents of the graphene-based P-junction and AP-junctions defined as, %P-S similar to (100%)x(I-P(c) - I-AP(c))/I-P(c), is found to be oscillated under varying the exchange energies. The maximum value of %P-S, (max)P-S -> infinity as T -> T-C. The cause of these effects is the relativistic nature of the quasi particles in the graphene-based junctions. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0921-4534
DOI: 10.1016/j.physc.2009.11.048

Record 232 of 726
Author(s): Afadlal, S (Afadlal, Szeifoul); Polaboon, N (Polaboon, Nongnuch); Surakul, P (Surakul, Pornprom); Govitrapong, P (Govitrapong, Piyarat); Jutapakdeegul, N (Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan)
Title: Prenatal stress alters presynaptic marker proteins in the hippocampus of rat pups
Source: NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, 470 (1): 24-27 FEB 5 2010
Abstract: Exposure to stress during critical periods of an organism's maturation can result in permanent behavioral changes and induced hyper-responsive to aversive stimuli as adult. Hippocampus is a plastic and vulnerable brain structure that is susceptible to damage during aging and repeated stress. The present study examines the effect of maternal restraint stress on the level of GAP-43, pGAP-43 and synaptophysin in the hippocampus of rat pups. Prenatal stress (PS) causes a significant increase of GAP-43 and pGAP-43 (p <= 0.001) in the pup's hippocampus during postnatal days 7 and 14, but not at later ages. Up-regulation of GAP-43 and pGAP-43 may alter the pattern of axonal growth and synapses' formation in the pup's brain since the first two postnatal weeks are correlated with peak period of synaptogenesis in the rat brain. We also examined the level of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle membrane protein, in the pup's brain. Our finding revealed that, PS causes a significant decrease of synaptophysin in the pup's hippocampus as compared to control (p <= 0.001). These changes are due to the direct effects of maternal stress hormone since repeated injection with corticosterone (CORT, 40 mg/kg) to pregnant rat during gestation days (GDs) 14-21 also gave the same results. Abnormal axonal sprouting and reorganization together with the alterations in synaptic vesicle membrane protein during the critical period of synaptogenesis may lead to a defect in synapse formation and axonal pruning in the hippocampus. These changes may be associated with stress-induced impairment of hippocampal function that occurs in later life of the offspring. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0304-3940
DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.12.046

Record 233 of 726
Author(s): Chamniansawat, S (Chamniansawat, Siriporn); Chongthammakun, S (Chongthammakun, Sukumal)
Title: Genomic and non-genomic actions of estrogen on synaptic plasticity in SH-SY5Y cells
Source: NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, 470 (1): 49-54 FEB 5 2010
Abstract: Estrogen modulates synaptic plasticity, an important mechanism of memory storage. Previously, we have reported that estrogen rapidly increases the expression of Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein), a key protein for synaptic plasticity, via non-genomic phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K)-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-, and estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent pathways in SH-SY5Y cells. The present study aimed to investigate the role of each ER subtype, alpha and beta, in synaptic plasticity in SH-SY5Y cells. The specific agonist of ER beta (DPN) markedly induced Arc expression that mimics treatment with estrogen. but not ER alpha (PTT). Determination of subcellular localization of ER beta using immunocytochemistry shows that ER beta was retained in the cytoplasm of the untreated cells. In estrogen-treated cells, the membrane and cytosolic ER beta gradually decreased, while nuclear ER beta progressively increased in time-dependent manner, suggesting estrogen-dependent nuclear translocation of ER beta. Nuclear accumulation of ERR at 6-12 h post-estrogen treatment, leads to increased PSD-95 and SYP mRNA expression, indicating the classical genomic estrogenic action on synaptic plasticity. However, the block of PI-3K signaling by Wortmannin partially suppressed estrogen (48 h)-induced PSD-95 and SYP expression, suggesting a crosstalk mechanism between genomic and non-genomic actions of estrogen on synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the estrogen-enhanced synaptic plasticity is ER beta-dependent and involves the crosstalk mechanism of non-genomic and genomic estrogenic actions. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0304-3940
DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.12.053

Record 234 of 726
Author(s): Mu, JB (Mu, Jianbing); Myers, RA (Myers, Rachel A.); Jiang, HY (Jiang, Hongying); Liu, SF (Liu, Shengfa); Ricklefs, S (Ricklefs, Stacy); Waisberg, M (Waisberg, Michael); Chotivanich, K (Chotivanich, Kesinee); Wilairatana, P (Wilairatana, Polrat); Krudsood, S (Krudsood, Srivicha); White, NJ (White, Nicholas J.); Udomsangpetch, R (Udomsangpetch, Rachanee); Cui, LW (Cui, Liwang); Ho, M (Ho, May); Ou, FZ (Ou, Fengzhen); Li, HB (Li, Haibo); Song, JP (Song, Jianping); Li, GQ (Li, Guoqiao); Wang, XH (Wang, Xinhua); Seila, S (Seila, Suon); Sokunthea, S (Sokunthea, Sreng); Socheat, D (Socheat, Duong); Sturdevant, DE (Sturdevant, Daniel E.); Porcella, SF (Porcella, Stephen F.); Fairhurst, RM (Fairhurst, Rick M.); Wellems, TE (Wellems, Thomas E.); Awadalla, P (Awadalla, Philip); Su, XZ (Su, Xin-zhuan)
Title: Plasmodium falciparum genome-wide scans for positive selection, recombination hot spots and resistance to antimalarial drugs
Source: NATURE GENETICS, 42 (3): 268-U113 MAR 2010
Abstract: Antimalarial drugs impose strong selective pressure on Plasmodium falciparum parasites and leave signatures of selection in the parasite genome(1,2); screening for genes under selection may suggest potential drug or immune targets(3). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of parasite traits have been hampered by the lack of high-throughput genotyping methods, inadequate knowledge of parasite population history and time-consuming adaptations of parasites to in vitro culture. Here we report the first Plasmodium GWAS, which included 189 culture-adapted P. falciparum parasites genotyped using a custom-built Affymetrix molecular inversion probe 3K malaria panel array with a coverage of similar to 1 SNP per 7 kb. Population structure, variation in recombination rate and loci under recent positive selection were detected. Parasite half-maximum inhibitory concentrations for seven antimalarial drugs were obtained and used in GWAS to identify genes associated with drug responses. This study provides valuable tools and insight into the P. falciparum genome.
ISSN: 1061-4036
DOI: 10.1038/ng.528

Record 235 of 726
Author(s): Garusi, C (Garusi, Cristina); Lohsiriwat, V (Lohsiriwat, Visnu); de Lorenzi, F (de Lorenzi, Francesca); Manconi, A (Manconi, Andrea); de Fiori, E (de Fiori, Elvio); Bellomi, M (Bellomi, Massimo)
Source: MICROSURGERY, 30 (2): 156-158 2010
Abstract: Precise preoperative imaging by multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography for planning of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap dissection has been reported for enormous advantages in terms of reduced operative time and minimized flap-related complications. This case report shows a particularly rare anatomical subfascia variant of deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) which can be preoperatively demonstrated by MDCT angiogram. Therefore, the intraoperative finding also confirms the radiologic data and results in meticulous flap harvesting during incision on anterior rectus sheath. Additionally, the authors emphasize on performing preoperative high quality imaging for DIEP intervention precisely for specific vulnerable course of subfascial plane DIEP, which is rare but tends to be at risk without foreknowing its exact course. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 30:156-158, 2010.
ISSN: 0738-1085
DOI: 10.1002/micr.20710

Record 236 of 726
Author(s): Ooi, CJ (Ooi, Choon Jin); Fock, KM (Fock, Kwong Ming); Makharia, GK (Makharia, Govind K.); Goh, KL (Goh, Khean Lee); Ling, KL (Ling, Khoon Lin); Hilmi, I (Hilmi, Ida); Lim, WC (Lim, Wee Chian); Kelvin, T (Kelvin, Thia); Gibson, PR (Gibson, Peter R.); Gearry, RB (Gearry, Richard B.); Ouyang, Q (Ouyang, Qin); Sollano, J (Sollano, Jose); Manatsathit, S (Manatsathit, Sathaporn); Rerknimitr, R (Rerknimitr, Rungsun); Wei, SC (Wei, Shu-chen); Leung, WK (Leung, Wai Keung); de Silva, HJ (de Silva, H. Janaka); Leong, RWL (Leong, Rupert W. L.)
Group Author(s): Asia Pacific Assoc Gastroenterolog
Title: The Asia-Pacific consensus on ulcerative colitis
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in many parts of the Asia-Pacific region. There is a need to improve the awareness of IBD and develop diagnostic and management recommendations relevant to the region. This evidence-based consensus focuses on the definition, epidemiology and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Asia.
A multi-disciplinary group developed the consensus statements, reviewed the relevant literature, and voted on them anonymously using the Delphi method. The finalized statements were reviewed to determine the level of consensus, evidence quality and strength of recommendation.
Infectious colitis must be excluded prior to diagnosing UC. Typical histology and macroscopic extent of the disease seen in the West is found in the Asia-Pacific region. Ulcerative colitis is increasing in many parts of Asia with gender distribution and age of diagnosis similar to the West. Extra-intestinal manifestations including primary sclerosing cholangitis are rarer than in the West. Clinical stratification of disease severity guides management. In Japan, leukocytapheresis is a treatment option. Access to biologic agents remains limited due to high cost and concern over opportunistic infections. The high endemic rates of hepatitis B virus infection require stringent screening before initiating immune-suppressive agents. Vaccination and prophylactic therapies should be initiated on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with local practice. Colorectal cancer complicates chronic colitis.
A recent increase in UC is reported in the Asia-Pacific region. These consensus statements aim to improve the recognition of UC and assist clinicians in its management with particular relevance to the region.
ISSN: 0815-9319
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06241.x

Record 237 of 726
Author(s): Niparuck, P (Niparuck, Pimjai); Sorakhunpipitkul, L (Sorakhunpipitkul, Ladda); Atichartakarn, V (Atichartakarn, Vichai); Chuncharunee, S (Chuncharunee, Suporn); Ungkanont, A (Ungkanont, Artit); Aungchaisuksiri, P (Aungchaisuksiri, Pantep); Puavilai, T (Puavilai, Teeraya); Jootar, S (Jootar, Saengsuree)
Title: Treatment outcome of thalidomide based regimens in newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory non-transplant multiple myeloma patients: a single center experience from Thailand
Source: JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY & ONCOLOGY, 3: Art. No. 1 JAN 5 2010
Abstract: Background: Thalidomide based regimen is an effective and well tolerated therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, however, there were a small number of studies written about the results of thalidomide therapy in non-transplant MM patients. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory MM treated with thalidomide-based induction regimens followed by thalidomide maintenance therapy.
Results: Induction regimens with thalidomide and dexamethasone, and the oral combination of melphalan, prednisolone and thalidomide were administrated in 22 and 16 patients, respectively. The remaining 4 patients received other thalidomide-containing regimens. Twenty-nine patients received thalidomide as a salvage regimen. Twenty-three out of 26 patients achieving complete remission (CR) and very good partial remission (VGPR) received thalidomide maintenance. Of the 41 evaluable patients, median time of treatment was 21 months (3-45 months), ORR was 92.7% with a 63.4% CR/VGPR. With a median follow up of 23 months, 3-year-PFS and 3-year-OS were 58.6 and 72.6%, respectively. Median time to progression was 42 months. While 3-year-PFS and 3-year-OS in non-transplant patients receiving thalidomide maintenance therapy were 67 and 80%, respectively.
Conclusions: Prolonged thalidomide therapy enhanced survival rate and less frequently developed serious toxicity in non-transplant multiple myeloma patients.
ISSN: 1756-8722
Article Number: 1
DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-3-1

Record 238 of 726
Author(s): Thanapprapasr, D (Thanapprapasr, Duangmani); Wilailak, S (Wilailak, Sarikapan); Ayudhya, NIN (Ayudhya, Nathpong Israngura Na); Lertkhachonsuk, AA (Lertkhachonsuk, Arb-aroon); Likittanasombut, P (Likittanasombut, Puchong); Chittithaworn, S (Chittithaworn, Suwicha); Charakorn, C (Charakorn, Chuenkamon); Weerakiet, S (Weerakiet, Sawaek)
Title: Can Vaginal Misoprostol Effectively Increase Rate of a Satisfactory Colposcopy? A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial*
Abstract: To evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol in overcoming an unsatisfactory colposcopy in the patients who had abnormal cervical cytology and to evaluate side effects of vaginal misoprostol.
Sixty patients with an unsatisfactory colposcopy during the period of September 2007-November 2008 were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either two tablets of 200 mu g misoprostol (400 mu g) or two tablets of similar-looking placebo vaginally. Colposcopic re-examination was performed similar to 6 h later. The results and side effects before and 2 weeks after the colposcopic re-examination were recorded.
Six out of 30 patients in the misoprostol group (20.0%) had a satisfactory colposcopic re-examination compared with 2 out of 27 patients (7.4%) in the placebo group without statistically significant difference (P = 0.172). Three patients in the placebo group dropped out due to not present at the appointment time. Six out of 30 patients (20.0%) and 1 out of 30 patients (3.3%) in the misoprostol group had side effects before and 2 weeks after the colposcopic re-examination orderly. Twenty-seven patients in the placebo group did not have any side effects before and 2 weeks after the colposcopic re-examination. All side effects occurred were minimal and well tolerated.
Four hundred micrograms of vaginal misoprostol were not proved to be effective in converting an unsatisfactory to a satisfactory colposcopy.
ISSN: 0368-2811
DOI: 10.1093/jjco/hyp140

Record 239 of 726
Author(s): Sun, W (Sun, Wei); Mao, SR (Mao, Shirui); Wang, YJ (Wang, Yanjun); Junyaprasert, VB (Junyaprasert, Varaporn B.); Zhang, TT (Zhang, Tingting); Na, LD (Na, Lidong); Wang, J (Wang, Juan)
Title: Bioadhesion and oral absorption of enoxaparin nanocomplexes
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS, 386 (1-2): 275-281 FEB 15 2010
Abstract: Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) formed between chitosan derivatives and enoxaparin were prepared by a self-assembly process and were characterized in terms of particle size and surface charge. The morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The colloidal stability and bioadhesion of the PEC were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The absorption of enoxaparin in rats was evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay. It was shown that the prepared PEC had a spherical shape with positive charge and a mean diameter in the range of 200-600 nm. An increase in temperature led to a decrease in particle size (ca. 10%) with an increased kcps value (ca. 10-20%) for the PEC studied, depending on the polymer structure. Thiolation and methylation of chitosan could significantly improve the corresponding PEC's bioadhesion and hence the oral absorption of enoxaparin. A good relationship between bioadhesion and in vivo absorption was established. However, PEC of PEGylated chitosan did not display a significantly enhanced permeation of enoxaparin compared with unmodified chitosan. In conclusion, the oral bioavailability of enoxaparin can be enhanced by improving the bioadhesive properties of PEC via the chemical modification of chitosan employed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0378-5173
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.11.025

Record 240 of 726
Author(s): Bowden, CL (Bowden, Charles L.); Mosolov, S (Mosolov, Sergey); Hranov, L (Hranov, Luchezar); Chen, E (Chen, Eric); Habil, H (Habil, Hussain); Kongsakon, R (Kongsakon, Ronnachai); Manfredi, R (Manfredi, Robert); Lin, HN (Lin, Hsin-Nan)
Title: Efficacy of valproate versus lithium in mania or mixed mania: a randomized, open 12-week trial
Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of valproate and lithium in bipolar I patients experiencing a manic or a mixed episode. This international, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, equivalence study included 268 patients with bipolar I disorder. The starting dose of valproate was 20 mg/kg/day and that of lithium was 800 mg/day. Treatment duration was 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was mean change in Young Mania Rating Scale score between baseline and study end. Secondary outcome measures were response and remission rates, change in Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression Bipolar Disorder instrument score, and occurrence of adverse events. The mean change from baseline in Young Mania Rating Scale score was 15.8 +/- 5.3 in the lithium group and 17.3 +/- 9.4 in the valproate group. The 90% confidence interval of the intergroup difference (-0.69; 3.31) was within prespecified equivalence limits. Response rates were 72.6% in the lithium group and 79.5% in the valproate group. Remission rates were 58.5 and 71.9%, respectively. No intergroup differences were observed in median time to treatment response (21 days) or change in Clinical Global Impression Bipolar Disorder instrument or Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Adverse events were reported in 42.8% of patients in the lithium group and 41.5% in the valproate group. Valproate and lithium showed comparable efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute mania over 12 weeks. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 25: 60-67 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
ISSN: 0268-1315
DOI: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e328333ac1b

Record 241 of 726
Author(s): Seripienlert, A (Seripienlert, A.); Ruffolo, D (Ruffolo, D.); Matthaeus, WH (Matthaeus, W. H.); Chuychai, P (Chuychai, P.)
Source: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 711 (2): 980-989 MAR 10 2010
Abstract: In recent observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer, the intensity of solar energetic particles exhibits sudden, large changes known as dropouts. These have been explained in terms of turbulence or a flux tube structure in the solar wind. Dropouts are believed to indicate filamentary magnetic connection to a localized particle source near the solar surface, and computer simulations of a random-phase model of magnetic turbulence have indicated a spatial association between dropout features and local trapping boundaries (LTBs) defined for a two-dimensional (2D) + slab model of turbulence. Previous observations have shown that dropout features are not well associated with sharp magnetic field changes, as might be expected in the flux tube model. Random-phase turbulence models do not properly treat sharp changes in the magnetic field, such as current sheets, and thus cannot be tested in this way. Here, we explore the properties of a more realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence model (2D MHD), in which current sheets develop and the current and magnetic field have characteristic non-Gaussian statistical properties. For this model, computer simulations that trace field lines to determine magnetic connection from a localized particle source indicate that sharp particle gradients should frequently be associated with LTBs, sometimes with strong 2D magnetic fluctuations, and infrequently with current sheets. Thus, the 2D MHD + slab model of turbulent fluctuations includes some realistic features of the flux tube view and is consistent with the lack of an observed association between dropouts and intense magnetic fields or currents.
ISSN: 0004-637X
DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/711/2/980

Record 242 of 726
Author(s): Rattanaumpawan, P (Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo); Sutha, P (Sutha, Patama); Thamlikitkul, V (Thamlikitkul, Visanu)
Title: Effectiveness of drug use evaluation and antibiotic authorization on patients' clinical outcomes, antibiotic consumption, and antibiotic expenditures
Abstract: Background: Piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem were inappropriately used in 50% of hospitalized patients at Siriraj Hospital. Siriraj Hospital administrators implemented drug use evaluation ( DUE) and antibiotic authorization for the aforementioned antibiotics beginning in August 2007. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic authorization on patients' clinical outcomes, antibiotic consumption, and antibiotic expenditures.
Methods: Hospitalized patients who were prescribed piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, or meropenem from August to November 2007 were randomly allocated to antibiotic authorization group and no-authorization group. The data on clinical outcomes, antibiotic consumption, and antibiotic expenditures of the patients who received and who did not receive antibiotic authorization were compared.
Results: The patients who received antibiotic authorization (512 prescriptions) had more favorable clinical outcomes (68.9% vs 60.5%, respectively, P < .01), shorter duration of target antibiotics (7.5 days vs 9.3 days, respectively, P < .01), shorter duration of all antibiotics (12.7 days vs 16.4 days, respectively, P < .01), and lower mortality because of infections (29.4% vs 35.4%, respectively, P = .05) than those who did not receive antibiotic authorization (516 prescriptions). The costs of target antibiotics and all antibiotics in the authorization group were much less than those in the no-authorization group. The annual antibiotic cost savings from DUE and antibiotic authorization requirement could be extrapolated to US $862,704.
Conclusion: DUE and antibiotic authorization are effective strategies in reducing antibiotic consumption and antibiotic expenditures without compromising the patients' clinical outcomes.
ISSN: 0196-6553
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2009.04.288

Record 243 of 726
Author(s): Bhumiratana, A (Bhumiratana, A.); Pechgit, P (Pechgit, P.); Koyadun, S (Koyadun, S.); Siriaut, C (Siriaut, C.); Yongyuth, P (Yongyuth, P.)
Title: Imported bancroftian filariasis: Diethylcarbamazine response and benzimidazole susceptibility of Wuchereria bancrofti in dynamic cross-border migrant population targeted by the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in South Thailand
Source: ACTA TROPICA, 113 (2): 121-128 FEB 2010
Abstract: The implementation on the Thailand-Myanmar border of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of a single 6 mg/kg dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus 400 mg albendazole, part of the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF), has been challenging. In particular, chain migration of cross-border Myanmar workers at risk for nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti infection can lead to imported bancroftian filariasis (IBF) in Thailand. IBF is targeted for multiple-dose MDA with 300 mg DEC, in addition to what is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The dynamic Myanmar migrants in Phang-nga, southern Thailand were sampled to test whether the responsible W bancrofti has a genetic predisposition of benzimidazole exposure, and IBF exhibits DEC susceptibility. The long-term migrants had more access to DEC. IBF in W bancrofti antigenemic (microfilaremic vs. amicrofilaremic) short-term migrants exhibited susceptibility to a 300-mg single-dose DEC treatment. During the course of a 3-month follow-up, antigenemia was significantly reduced, but microfilaremia was fluctuated. Surprisingly, a newly recognized Mansonella infection co-existing among W. bancrofti-affected Myanmar Migrants elicited microfilaremia clearance within a month after treatment. As a result of the presence of genetically stable W bancrofti beta-tubulin (Wbtubb) gene responsible for benzimidazole susceptibility, IBF did not possess a genetic predisposition for benzimidazole exposure. Point mutations at positions Phe167Tyr and Phe200Tyr were not detected by Wbtubb locus-specific nested PCR and sequencing. This study has the potential to help guide not only the Thai/Myanmar PELF surveillance and monitoring of mass treatment impacts on W bancrofti, but also the other endemic countries allied with the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0001-706X
DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.10.004

Record 244 of 726
Author(s): Fugthong, A (Fugthong, Anusorn); Boonyapakron, K (Boonyapakron, Katewadee); Sornlek, W (Sornlek, Warasirin); Tanapongpipat, S (Tanapongpipat, Sutipa); Eurwilaichitr, L (Eurwilaichitr, Lily); Pootanakit, K (Pootanakit, Kusol)
Title: Biochemical characterization and in vitro digestibility assay of Eupenicillium parvum (BCC17694) phytase expressed in Pichia pastoris
Abstract: A mature phytase cDNA, encoding 441 amino acids, from Eupenicillium parvum (BCC17694) was cloned into a Pichia pastoris expression vector, pPICZ alpha A, and was successfully expressed as active extracellular glycosylated protein. The recombinant phytase contained the active site RHGXRXP and HD sequence motifs, a large alpha/beta domain and a small alpha-domain that are typical of histidine acid phosphatase. Glycosylation was found to be important for enzyme activity which is most active at 50 degrees C and pH 5.5. The recombinant phytase displayed broad substrate specificity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate, sodium-, calcium-, and potassium-phytate. The enzyme lost its activity after incubating at 50 degrees C for 5 min and is 50% inhibited by 5 mM Cu2+. However, the enzyme exhibits broad pH stability from 2.5 to 8.0 and is resistant to pepsin. In vitro digestibility test suggested that BCC17694 phytase is at least as effective as another recombinant phytase (r-A170) which is comparable to Natuphos, a commercial phytase, in releasing phosphate from corn-based animal feed, suggesting that BCC17694 phytase is suitable for use as phytase supplement in the animal diet. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1046-5928
DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2009.10.001

Record 245 of 726
Author(s): Mtove, G (Mtove, George); Amos, B (Amos, Ben); von Seidlein, L (von Seidlein, Lorenz); Hendriksen, I (Hendriksen, Ilse); Mwambuli, A (Mwambuli, Abraham); Kimera, J (Kimera, Juma); Mallahiyo, R (Mallahiyo, Rajabu); Kim, DR (Kim, Deok Ryun); Ochiai, RL (Ochiai, R. Leon); Clemens, JD (Clemens, John D.); Reyburn, H (Reyburn, Hugh); Magesa, S (Magesa, Stephen); Deen, JL (Deen, Jacqueline L.)
Title: Invasive Salmonellosis among Children Admitted to a Rural Tanzanian Hospital and a Comparison with Previous Studies
Source: PLOS ONE, 5 (2): Art. No. e9244 FEB 16 2010
Abstract: Background: The importance of invasive salmonellosis in African children is well recognized but there is inadequate information on these infections. We conducted a fever surveillance study in a Tanzanian rural hospital to estimate the case fraction of invasive salmonellosis among pediatric admissions, examine associations with common co-morbidities and describe its clinical features. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies among children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Methodology/Principal Findings: From 1 March 2008 to 28 Feb 2009, 1,502 children were enrolled into the study. We collected clinical information and blood for point of care tests, culture, and diagnosis of malaria and HIV. We analyzed the clinical features on admission and outcome by laboratory-confirmed diagnosis. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the blood of 156 (10%) children, of which 14 (9%) were S. typhi, 45 (29%) were NTS and 97 (62%) were other pathogenic bacteria. Invasive salmonellosis accounted for 59/156 (38%) bacteremic children. Children with typhoid fever were significantly older and presented with a longer duration of fever. NTS infections were significantly associated with prior antimalarial treatment, malarial complications and with a high risk for death.
Conclusions/Significance: Invasive salmonellosis, particularly NTS infection, is an important cause of febrile disease among hospitalized children in our rural Tanzanian setting. Previous studies showed considerable variation in the case fraction of S. typhi and NTS infections. Certain suggestive clinical features (such as older age and long duration of fever for typhoid whereas concomitant malaria, anemia, jaundice and hypoglycemia for NTS infection) may be used to distinguish invasive salmonellosis from other severe febrile illness.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Article Number: e9244
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009244

Record 246 of 726
Author(s): Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, C (Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm); Nantasenamat, C (Nantasenamat, Chanin); Dansethakul, P (Dansethakul, Prabhop); Saetum, P (Saetum, Pradermchai); Laosrivijit, S (Laosrivijit, Sirikul); Prachayasittikul, V (Prachayasittikul, Virapong)
Title: Solving the barriers to diabetes education through the use of multimedia
Source: NURSING & HEALTH SCIENCES, 12 (1): 58-66 MAR 2010
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects > 180 million people worldwide. It is persistent in Thai communities in spite of much effort in prevention and control. This study examined the knowledge capacity of villagers in the Klongmai community of Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, regarding diabetes by way of action research. A health status assessment and a survey of the community were carried out and used as the basis for designing an educational video on diabetes that is accessible regardless of age and educational background. Evaluations of the pre- and poststudy questionnaires were carried out using statistical analysis. The results indicated that the devised educational materials were effective in encouraging the community's self-awareness and perception of diabetes at the significance level of 0.05. Most importantly, the participants demonstrated proficiency in adapting the knowledge gained from the workshop to their own lifestyle.
ISSN: 1441-0745
DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2009.00487.x

Record 247 of 726
Author(s): Saletta, F (Saletta, Federica); Rahmanto, YS (Rahmanto, Yohan Suryo); Noulsri, E (Noulsri, Egarit); Richardson, DR (Richardson, Des R.)
Title: Iron Chelator-Mediated Alterations in Gene Expression: Identification of Novel Iron-Regulated Molecules That Are Molecular Targets of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 alpha and p53
Source: MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, 77 (3): 443-458 MAR 2010
Abstract: Iron deficiency affects 500 million people, yet the molecular role of iron in gene expression remains poorly characterized. In addition, the alterations in global gene expression after iron chelation remain unclear and are important to assess for understanding the molecular pathology of iron deficiency and the biological effects of chelators. Considering this, we assessed the effect on whole genome gene expression of two iron chelators (desferrioxamine and 2-hydroxy-1-napthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone) that have markedly different permeability properties. Sixteen genes were significantly regulated by both ligands, whereas a further 50 genes were significantly regulated by either compound. Apart from iron-mediated regulation of expression via hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, it was noteworthy that the transcription factor p53 was also involved in iron-regulated gene expression. Examining 16 genes regulated by both chelators in normal and neoplastic cells, five genes (APP, GDF15, CITED2, EGR1, and PNRC1) were significantly differentially expressed between the cell types. In view of their functions in tumor suppression, proliferation, and apoptosis, these findings are important for understanding the selective antiproliferative effects of chelators against neoplastic cells. Most of the genes identified have not been described previously to be iron-regulated and are important for understanding the molecular and cellular effects of iron depletion.
ISSN: 0026-895X
DOI: 10.1124/mol.109.061028

Record 248 of 726
Author(s): Smith, J (Smith, Jennifer); McDaid, JP (McDaid, John P.); Bhangal, G (Bhangal, Gurjeet); Chawanasuntorapoj, R (Chawanasuntorapoj, Ratana); Masuda, ES (Masuda, Esteban S.); Cook, HT (Cook, H. Terence); Pusey, CD (Pusey, Charles D.); Tam, FWK (Tam, Frederick W. K.)
Title: A Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Reduces the Severity of Established Glomerulonephritis
Abstract: Antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis, including that resulting from immune complexes, is an important cause of renal failure and is in need of more specific and effective treatment. Binding of antibody or immune complexes to Fc receptors activates intracellular signal transduction pathways, including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. We examined the effect of R788 (fostamatinib disodium), an oral prodrug of the selective Syk inhibitor R406, in nephrotoxic nephritis in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Treatment with R788 reduced proteinuria, tissue injury, glomerular macrophage and CD8+ cell numbers, and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-1 beta, even when we started treatment after the onset of glomerulonephritis. When we administered R788 from days 4 to 10, glomerular crescents reduced by 100% (P < 0.01) compared with the vehicle group. When we administered R788 treatment from days 7 to 14, established glomerular crescents reversed (reduced by 21%, P < 0.001), and renal function was better than the vehicle group (P < 0.001). In vitro, R406 downregulated MCP-1 production from mesangial cells and macrophages stimulated with aggregated IgG. These results suggest that Syk is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of glomerulonephritis.
ISSN: 1046-6673
DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2009030263

Record 249 of 726
Author(s): Prutthiwanasan, B (Prutthiwanasan, Brompoj); Suntornsuk, L (Suntornsuk, Leena)
Title: Rapid analysis of alkylphosphonate drugs by capillary zone electrophoresis using indirect ultraviolet detection
Source: JOURNAL OF SEPARATION SCIENCE, 33 (2): 228-234 FEB 2010
Abstract: A rapid capillary electrophoretic method for the analysis of three alkylphosphonate drugs (i.e. fosfomycin disodium (FOS), clodronate disodium (CLO) and alendronate sodium (ALN)) was developed by using multiple probe BGE and indirect UV detection. BGE containing 30 mM benzoic acid, 5 mM salicylic acid and 0.5 mM CTAB (pH 3.8), temperature of 30 degrees C, applied voltage of -30 kV and detection at 220 rum provided baseline separation of all analytes (resolution (R) > 2.2) in 3.2 min. EOF reversal by addition of CTAB and negative voltage polarity leading to the co-EOF flow and short analysis time. Two probe BGE greatly improved peak symmetry. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.999 in ranges of 20-1000 mu g/mL for FOS, 100-1000 mu g/mL for CLO and 100-750 mu g/mL for ALN) repeatablitiy (RSD<2.15%), recovery (99.3-101.1%) and sensitivity (LOD < 50 mu g/mL). Freshly prepared BGE and sample solutions are essential for the method precision and accuracy. This new method can be utilized for routine analysis of FOS, CLO and ALN in dosage forms because of its efficiency, reliability, speed and simplicity.
ISSN: 1615-9306
DOI: 10.1002/jssc.200900518

Record 250 of 726
Author(s): Ubol, S (Ubol, Sukathida); Phuklia, W (Phuklia, Weerawat); Kalayanarooj, S (Kalayanarooj, Siripen); Modhiran, N (Modhiran, Naphak)
Title: Mechanisms of Immune Evasion Induced by a Complex of Dengue Virus and Preexisting Enhancing Antibodies
Source: JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 201 (6): 923-935 MAR 15 2010
Abstract: We have found that dengue virus (DENV) not only uses preexisting enhancing antibodies to promote its entry into Fc receptor-bearing cells but also exploits enhancing antibodies for intracellular immune evasion through 2 mechanisms. In the first mechanism, entry of DENV-antibody complexes into human monocytic cells activates negative regulators, dihydroxyacetone kinase and autophagy-related 5-autophagy-related 12, which then disrupt the retinoic acide incucible gene I and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 signaling cascade and disable type 1 interferon production, leading to suppression of interferon-mediated antiviral responses. In the second mechanism, the immune evasion was found to be mediated by the suppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). High levels of IL-10 activated expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 gene, which subsequently inactivated the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. Inhibition of IL-10 production by small interfering RNA down-regulated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 gene expression, restored inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression, and suppressed DENV replication. Importantly, we were able to demonstrate that these 2 loops of suppression occurred in patients with severe secondary dengue infection (denguehemorrhagic fever) but not in patients with mild secondary dengue infection (dengue fever).
ISSN: 0022-1899
DOI: 10.1086/651018

Record 251 of 726
Author(s): Tungtrongchitr, A (Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee); Sookrung, N (Sookrung, Nitat); Indrawattana, N (Indrawattana, Nitaya); Kwangsi, S (Kwangsi, Sukanya); Ongrotchanakun, J (Ongrotchanakun, Jeerawan); Chaicumpa, W (Chaicumpa, Wanpen)
Title: Giardia intestinalis in Thailand: Identification of Genotypes
Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the genetic diversities of Giardia intestinalis isolated in Thailand. G. intestinalis cysts were collected from stool samples of 61 subjects residing in Bangkok or in rural communities of Thailand with and without gastrointestinal symptoms. All the cyst samples gave positive tpi amplicons (100% sensitivity), either of the 148- or the 81-bp tpi segments. Cyst assemblage identification of the 148- and 81-bp tpi gene segments by polymerase chain reaction showed that 8% of the cysts were assemblage A, 41% assemblage A and B combined, and 51% assemblage B. The prevalence of assemblage A was significantly lower than that of assemblage B and the mixed types. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the 384-bp beta-giardin gene segment revealed that 12% and 88% of the assemblage A cysts were AI and AII respectively. RFLP, based on the 432-bp gdh gene segment, showed 45.5% of the assemblage B cysts to be BIII and 54.5% to be BIV. The AI sub-assemblage was less prevalent than the others. All subjects with AI and 50% of the subjects with BIII sub-assemblage cysts were symptomatic; 80% of symptomatic Bangkok residents were adults/elderly while 85% of the rural cases were children.
ISSN: 1606-0997

Record 252 of 726
Author(s): Harnirattisai, C (Harnirattisai, Choltacha); Luangaram, C (Luangaram, Chumpol); Kuphasuk, W (Kuphasuk, Watcharaporn); Senawongse, P (Senawongse, Pisol)
Title: The Influence of a Local Anesthetic Containing Vasoconstrictor on Microtensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesive Systems to Human Dentin In Situ
Source: JOURNAL OF ADHESIVE DENTISTRY, 12 (1): 11-18 FEB 2010
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the bond strengths of an etch-and-rinse adhesive and a self-etching adhesive to human dentin in vitro and under two in situ conditions: non-anesthetization and anesthetization of the teeth with a local anesthetic containing vasoconstrictor.
Materials and Methods: An in situ study was performed on 49 maxillary premolars scheduled for extraction due to orthodontic reasons. For the bond strength test, occlusal cavities were prepared either with or without a local anesthetic containing vasoconstrictor. The cavities were bonded with Adper Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond and filled with a resin composite, Filtek Z250. The teeth were then extracted, sectioned, trimmed, and tested for microtensile bond strength. For the observation of dentin surfaces, 20 premolars were used. The impressions of the cavity floors in the anesthetized and non-anesthetized groups were taken before and after acid etching. The replicas were observed under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro, the bond strength test and the SEM observation were also carried out on 24 extracted premolars with the same procedures used in the in situ study.
Results: The bond strengths of the two adhesives bonded to dentin in situ were significantly lower than those in vitro. When both adhesives were tested under in situ conditions, there were no significant differences between the bond strengths to dentin of anesthetized and non-anesthetized groups (p > 0.05). No fluid droplets were found on dentin on the cavity floor prepared in vitro, either before or after acid-etching. For the unetched dentin prepared in situ, fluid droplets were found and covered on the smear layer in anesthetized and non-anesthetized groups, but the droplets were slightly larger in the non-anesthetized group. In the non-anesthetized, acid-etched group, dentin surfaces were covered with coalescent dentinal fluid in most specimens. However, in the anesthetized, acid-etched group, patent tubules and some dentinal fluid were observed on the surfaces.
Conclusion: It was concluded that in situ, dentinal fluid had a detrimental effect on the dentin bond strengths of an etch-and-rinse adhesive and a self-etching adhesive. However, reduction in dentinal fluid due to the effect of a local anesthetic containing vasoconstrictor did not improve the bond strengths in either adhesives.
ISSN: 1461-5185
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a17531

Record 253 of 726
Author(s): Suntornsaratoon, P (Suntornsaratoon, Panan); Wongdee, K (Wongdee, Kannikar); Krishnamra, N (Krishnamra, Nateetip); Charoenphandhu, N (Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol)
Title: Femoral bone mineral density and bone mineral content in bromocriptine-treated pregnant and lactating rats
Abstract: Since hyperprolactinemia was found to induce osteopenia in the metaphysis of long bone in non-mated female rats, pregnant and lactating rats with sustainedly high plasma prolactin (PRL) levels might also exhibit some changes in their long bones. We performed a longitudinal study in pregnant, lactating and post-weaning rats, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to demonstrate site-specific changes (i.e., metaphysis vs. diaphysis) in femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). The results showed that femoral metaphyseal BMD and BMC were higher when compared to their age-matched controls during pregnancy, before decreasing in late lactation and post-weaning. On the other hand, femoral diaphyseal BMC increased during pregnancy, early lactating and mid-lactating periods without change during late lactation and post-weaning. After 7 days of bromocriptine administration which inhibited endogenous PRL secretion, the lactation-induced increases in BMC during early and mid-lactating periods were abolished. Moreover, a decrease in metaphyseal BMD during late lactation was restored to the control levels by bromocriptine. However, bromocriptine did not antagonize the pregnancy-induced increases in BMD and BMC. It could be concluded that the effect of PRL on bone was variable during the reproductive periods. While having no effect on femoral BMD and BMC during pregnancy, PRL was responsible for bone gain in early and mid-lactating periods, but induced bone loss during late lactating period.
ISSN: 1880-6546
DOI: 10.1007/s12576-009-0059-1

Record 254 of 726
Author(s): Nakkrasae, LI (Nakkrasae, La-iad); Thongon, N (Thongon, Narongrit); Thongbunchoo, J (Thongbunchoo, Jirawan); Krishnamra, N (Krishnamra, Nateetip); Charoenphandhu, N (Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol)
Title: Transepithelial calcium transport in prolactin-exposed intestine-like Caco-2 monolayer after combinatorial knockdown of TRPV5, TRPV6 and Ca(v)1.3
Abstract: The milk-producing hormone prolactin (PRL) increases the transcellular intestinal calcium absorption by enhancing apical calcium uptake through voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (Ca-v) 1.3. However, the redundancy of apical calcium channels raised the possibility that Ca(v)1.3 may operate with other channels, especially transient receptor potential vanilloid family calciumchannels (TRPV) 5 or 6, in an interdependent manner. Herein, TRPV5 knockdown (KD), TRPV5/TRPV6, TRPV5/Ca(v)1.3, and TRPV6/Ca(v)1.3 double KD, and TRPV5/TRPV6/Ca(v)1.3 triple KD Caco-2 monolayers were generated by transfecting cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). siRNAs downregulated only the target mRNAs, and did not induce compensatory upregulation of the remaining channels. After exposure to 600 ng/mL PRL, the transcellular calcium transport was increased by similar to 2-fold in scrambled siRNA-treated, TRPV5 KD and TRPV5/TRPV6 KD monolayers, but not in TRPV5/Ca(v)1.3, TRPV6/Ca(v)1.3 and TRPV5/TRPV6/Ca(v)1.3 KD monolayers. The results suggested that Ca(v)1.3 was the sole apical channel responsible for the PRL-stimulated transcellular calcium transport in intestine-like Caco-2 monolayer.
ISSN: 1880-6546
DOI: 10.1007/s12576-009-0068-0

Record 255 of 726
Author(s): Tanyaratsrisakul, S (Tanyaratsrisakul, S.); Malainual, N (Malainual, N.); Jirapongsananuruk, O (Jirapongsananuruk, O.); Smith, WA (Smith, W. A.); Thomas, WR (Thomas, W. R.); Piboonpocanun, S (Piboonpocanun, S.)
Title: Structural and IgE Binding Analyses of Recombinant Der p 2 Expressed from the Hosts Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris
Abstract: Background: The house dust mite allergen Der p 2 is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic disease. Recombinant Der (rDer) p 2 with high IgE binding activity can be readily produced in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, but the structure and IgE binding of the different methods of preparation have not been compared. Methods: Secondary structure was assessed by circular dichroism (CD). Intrinsic fluorescence and hydrophobic probe (1-anilino-naphthalene 8-sulphonic acid, ANS) were used to study the Der p 2 hydrophobic cavity. IgE binding was assessed by ELISA inhibition. Results: CD analysis showed the expected secondary structure for both nDer p 2 and refolded Der p 2 prepared from E. coli inclusion bodies but primarily random structure for Der p 2 secreted from P. pastoris. The secreted product, however, had disulphide bonding and could be refolded to a similar structure to natural Der (nDer) p 2 after precipitation with trichloro-acetic or ammonium sulphate. ANS binding and intrinsic Trp92 fluorescence showed that all recombinant proteins were different to nDer p 2 and that the allergen secreted from P. pastoris did not form a hydrophobic cavity. Despite the marked structural changes, all preparations of Der p 2 had similar IgE binding to nDer p 2. Conclusion: Despite almost identical IgE binding, rDer p 2 prepared from both E. coli and P. pastoris showed structural differences to nDer p 2. Der p 2 secreted from P. pastoris lacked most of the natural structure, but refolding could induce the natural structure. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
ISSN: 1018-2438
DOI: 10.1159/000242356

Record 256 of 726
Author(s): Chootong, P (Chootong, Patchanee); Ntumngia, FB (Ntumngia, Francis B.); VanBuskirk, KM (VanBuskirk, Kelley M.); Jia, XL (Jia Xainli); Cole-Tobian, JL (Cole-Tobian, Jennifer L.); Campbell, CO (Campbell, Christopher O.); Fraser, TS (Fraser, Tresa S.); King, CL (King, Christopher L.); Adams, JH (Adams, John H.)
Title: Mapping Epitopes of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein with Naturally Acquired Inhibitory Antibodies
Source: INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 78 (3): 1089-1095 MAR 2010
Abstract: Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) is a merozoite microneme ligand vital for blood-stage infection, which makes it an important candidate vaccine for antibody-mediated immunity against vivax malaria. A differential screen with a linear peptide array compared the reactivities of noninhibitory and inhibitory high-titer human immune sera to identify target epitopes associated with protective immunity. Naturally acquired anti-DBP-specific serologic responses observed in the residents of a region of Papua New Guinea where P. vivax is highly endemic exhibited significant changes in DBP-specific titers over time. The anti-DBP functional inhibition for each serum ranged from complete inhibition to no inhibition even for high-titer responders to the DBP, indicating that epitope specificity is important. Inhibitory immune human antibodies identified specific B-cell linear epitopes on the DBP (SalI) ligand domain that showed significant correlations with inhibitory responses. Affinity-purified naturally acquired antibodies on these epitopes inhibited the DBP erythrocyte binding function greatly, confirming the protective value of specific epitopes. These results represent an important advance in our understanding of part of blood-stage immunity to P. vivax and some of the specific targets for vaccine-elicited antibody protection.
ISSN: 0019-9567
DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01036-09

Record 257 of 726
Author(s): Kato-Hayashi, N (Kato-Hayashi, Naoko); Kirinoki, M (Kirinoki, Masashi); Iwamura, Y (Iwamura, Yukio); Kanazawa, T (Kanazawa, Tamotsu); Kitikoon, V (Kitikoon, Viroj); Matsuda, H (Matsuda, Hajime); Chigusa, Y (Chigusa, Yuichi)
Title: Identification and differentiation of human schistosomes by polymerase chain reaction
Source: EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY, 124 (3): 325-329 MAR 2010
Abstract: Recent increasing number of travelers, immigrants and foreign workers from schistosomiasis endemic area has thus resulted in the importation of schistosomiasis to non-endemic countries. To avoid ovainduced pathogenicity, sensitive and specific diagnostic means at an early stage of infection are therefore crucial. In this study, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for human schistosome species. The PCR products were obtained in a species-specific manner (479 bp, Schistosoma mansoni; 365 bp, S. haematobium; 614 bp, S. japonicum; 303 bp, S. mekongi) and were detectable from 0.01 pg of total worm DNA (S. haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mekongi). The primer sets were also available for multiplex use. Although some difficulties were experienced in amplifying the parasite DNA from the infected animals, schistosome DNA could be detected from one day post infection. The PCR method described herein will therefore be beneficial to detect human schistosomiasis, after some improvements in this method. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0014-4894
DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2009.11.008

Record 258 of 726
Author(s): Buathong, S (Buathong, Saiwasan); Mungthin, M (Mungthin, Mathirut); Tan-ariya, P (Tan-ariya, Peerapan); Naaglor, T (Naaglor, Tawee); Taamasri, P (Taamasri, Paanjit); Suwannahitatorn, P (Suwannahitatorn, Picha); Leelayoova, S (Leelayoova, Saovanee)
Title: PBS incubation, a simple technique to release miracidia of Opisthorchis-like eggs for DNA extraction
Source: EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY, 124 (3): 357-359 MAR 2010
Abstract: This study describes a simple technique for releasing miracidia from Opisthorchis-like eggs before DNA extraction by keeping PBS washed specimens at 4 degrees C for two days. Using PCR amplification, the sensitivity of the PBS incubation technique was as good as that obtained from freeze-thaw technique. Moreover, this low-cost technique is less laborious. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0014-4894
DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2009.11.011

Record 259 of 726
Author(s): Rojanarata, T (Rojanarata, Theerasak); Opanasopit, P (Opanasopit, Praneet); Ngawhirunpat, T (Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait); Saehuan, C (Saehuan, Choedchai); Wiyakrutta, S (Wiyakrutta, Suthep); Meevootisom, V (Meevootisom, Vithaya)
Title: A simple, sensitive and green bienzymatic UV-spectrophotometric assay of amoxicillin formulations
Source: ENZYME AND MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY, 46 (3-4): 292-296 MAR 5 2010
Abstract: A simple, fast, sensitive and inexpensive UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of amoxicillin in pharmaceutical preparations has been developed based on two enzymatic reactions. In this method, D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine side chain of amoxicillin was selectively cleaved off by penicillin acylase. Subsequently. it was reacted with 2-oxoglutarate. by the catalysis Of D-phenylglycine aminotransferase, to yield the product with high UV absorption namely 4-hydroxybenzoylformate. The amount of amoxicillin was then determined as a change in absorbance at 335 nm. In this work, the assay conditions were studied and optimized and the method was validated. The calibration curve presented an excellent linearity with r(2) of 0.9998 (0-100 mu M amoxicillin). Detection and quantitation limits were 0.77 and 2.55 mu M, respectively. Good accuracy and precision were obtained when the method was tested with amoxicillin capsules and powder for oral suspension. No interference from common excipients in the formulations or degradation products was observed. Finally, since all procedures were performed without the use of any organic solvents or hazardous chemicals which were detrimental to the environment and had a low consumption of reagents. this proposed assay was an ideal green analytical method suitable for the quality control of amoxicillin in pharmaceuticals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0141-0229
DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2009.11.011

Record 260 of 726
Author(s): Toomtong, P (Toomtong, Patiparn); Suksompong, S (Suksompong, Sirilak)
Title: Intravenous fluids for abdominal aortic surgery
Abstract: Background
Surgery on the abdominal aorta to treat aneurysms or occlusive disease is a major undertaking which requires intensive physiological support and fluid management. Blood products are often used but the main fluid replacement is with crystalloids or colloids. For years there has been controversy over which fluid is optimal and a number of studies have examined the subject. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000 and previously updated in 2002.
To determine the effectiveness of different non-blood replacement fluids used in abdominal aorta procedures with a view to identifying the optimal fluid for use.
Search strategy
The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group searched their Specialised Register (August 2009) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3) for publications describing randomised controlled trials of non-blood replacement fluids in abdominal aortic surgery. In addition, the reference lists from retrieved trials were screened for further information about trials.
Selection criteria
Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of at least one specific non-blood fluid used for replacement therapy in operations on, and confined to, the abdominal aorta.
Data collection and analysis
Data were extracted and then entered into the Review Manager software where statistical analyses were performed.
Main results
Thirty-eight trials involving 1589 patients were included. Patients undergoing aortic surgery had various physiological parameters measured before and after their operation (these were cardiac, respiratory, haematological, and biochemical). Patients were randomised to a fluid type. This review demonstrated that no single fluid affects any outcome measure significantly more than another fluid across a range of outcomes. The death rate in these studies was 2.45% (39 patients).
Authors' conclusions
Despite the confirmed beneficial effects of colloids in this review, further studies are still required. There are no studies examining the effects of combination fluid therapy. The primary research outcome was death, for which results were limited; therefore, future studies should pay more attention to short-term outcomes such as minimising the need for allogenic blood transfusion, complications (organ failure), and length of stay in both the intensive care unit and hospital.
ISSN: 1469-493X
Article Number: CD000991
DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000991.pub2

Record 261 of 726
Author(s): Lallemant, M (Lallemant, Marc); Ngo-Giang-Huong, N (Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole); Jourdain, G (Jourdain, Gonzague); Traisaithit, P (Traisaithit, Patrinee); Cressey, TR (Cressey, Tim R.); Collins, IJ (Collins, Intira J.); Jarupanich, T (Jarupanich, Tapnarong); Sukhumanant, T (Sukhumanant, Thammanoon); Achalapong, J (Achalapong, Jullapong); Sabsanong, P (Sabsanong, Prapan); Chotivanich, N (Chotivanich, Nantasak); Winiyakul, N (Winiyakul, Narong); Ariyadej, S (Ariyadej, Surabon); Kanjanasing, A (Kanjanasing, Annop); Ratanakosol, J (Ratanakosol, Janyaporn); Hemvuttiphan, J (Hemvuttiphan, Jittapol); Kengsakul, K (Kengsakul, Karun); Wannapira, W (Wannapira, Wiroj); Sittipiyasakul, V (Sittipiyasakul, Veerachai); Pornkitprasarn, W (Pornkitprasarn, Witaya); Liampongsabuddhi, P (Liampongsabuddhi, Prateung); McIntosh, K (McIntosh, Kenneth); Van Dyke, RB (Van Dyke, Russell B.); Frenkel, LM (Frenkel, Lisa M.); Koetsawang, S (Koetsawang, Suporn); Le Coeur, S (Le Coeur, Sophie); Kanchana, S (Kanchana, Siripon)
Group Author(s): PHPT-4 Study Team
Title: Efficacy and Safety of 1-Month Postpartum Zidovudine-Didanosine to Prevent HIV-Resistance Mutations after Intrapartum Single-Dose Nevirapine
Source: CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 50 (6): 898-908 MAR 15 2010
Abstract: Background. Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine plus third trimester maternal and infant zidovudine are essential components of programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource-limited settings. The persistence of nevirapine in the plasma for 3 weeks postpartum risks selection of resistance mutations to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). We hypothesized that a 1-month zidovudine-didanosine course initiated at the same time as single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) would prevent the selection of nevirapine-resistance mutations.
Methods. HIV-infected pregnant women in the PHPT-4 cohort with CD4 cell counts >250 cells/mm(3) received antepartum zidovudine from the third trimester until delivery, sdNVP during labor, and a 1-month zidovudine-didanosine course after delivery. These women were matched on the basis of baseline HIV load, CD4 cell count, and duration of antepartum zidovudine to women who received sdNVP in the PHPT-2 trial (control subjects). Consensus sequencing and the more sensitive oligonucleotide ligation assay were performed on samples obtained on postpartum days 7-10, 37-45, and 120 (if the HIV load was >500 copies/mL) to detect K103N/Y181C/G190A mutations.
Results. The 222 PHPT-4 subjects did not differ from matched control subjects in baseline characteristics except for age. The combined group median CD4 cell count was 421 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range [IQR], 322-549 cells/mm3), the median HIV load was 3.45 log(10) copies/mL (IQR, 2.79-4.00 log(10) copies/mL), and the median duration of zidovudine prophylaxis was 10.4 weeks (IQR, 9.1-11.4 weeks). Using consensus sequencing, major NNRTI resistance mutations were detected after delivery in 0% of PHPT-4 subjects and 10.4% of PHPT-2 controls. The oligonucleotide ligation assay detected resistance in 1.8% of PHPT-4 subjects and 18.9% of controls. Major NNRTI resistance mutations were detected by either method in 1.8% of PHPT-4 subjects and 20.7% of controls (P<.001).
Conclusions. A 1-month postpartum course of zidovudine plus didanosine prevented the selection of the vast majority of NNRTI resistance mutations.
ISSN: 1058-4838
DOI: 10.1086/650745

Record 262 of 726
Author(s): Kanthong, N (Kanthong, Nipaporn); Khemnu, N (Khemnu, Nuanpan); Pattanakitsakul, SN (Pattanakitsakul, Sa-Nga); Malasit, P (Malasit, Prida); Flegel, TW (Flegel, Timothy W.)
Title: Persistent, triple-virus co-infections in mosquito cells
Source: BMC MICROBIOLOGY, 10: Art. No. 14 JAN 20 2010
Abstract: Background: It is known that insects and crustaceans can carry simultaneous, active infections of two or more viruses without showing signs of disease, but it was not clear whether co-infecting viruses occupied the same cells or different cells in common target tissues. Our previous work showed that successive challenge of mosquito cell cultures followed by serial, split-passage resulted in stabilized cultures with 100% of the cells co-infected with Dengue virus (DEN) and an insect parvovirus (densovirus) (DNV). By addition of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE), we tested our hypothesis that stable, persistent, triple-virus co-infections could be obtained by the same process.
Results: Using immunocytochemistry by confocal microscopy, we found that JE super-challenge of cells dually infected with DEN and DNV resulted in stable cultures without signs of cytopathology, and with 99% of the cells producing antigens of the 3 viruses. Location of antigens for all 3 viruses in the triple co-infections was dominant in the cell nuclei. Except for DNV, this differed from the distribution in cells persistently infected with the individual viruses or co-infected with DNV and DEN. The dependence of viral antigen distribution on single infection or coinfection status suggested that host cells underwent an adaptive process to accommodate 2 or more viruses.
Conclusions: Individual mosquito cells can accommodate at least 3 viruses simultaneously in an adaptive manner. The phenomenon provides an opportunity for genetic exchange between diverse viruses and it may have important medical and veterinary implications for arboviruses.
ISSN: 1471-2180
Article Number: 14
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-14

Record 263 of 726
Author(s): Okiro, EA (Okiro, Emelda A.); White, LJ (White, Lisa J.); Ngama, M (Ngama, Mwanajuma); Cane, PA (Cane, Patricia A.); Medley, GF (Medley, Graham F.); Nokes, DJ (Nokes, D. James)
Title: Duration of shedding of respiratory syncytial virus in a community study of Kenyan children
Source: BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 10: Art. No. 15 JAN 22 2010
Abstract: Background: Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admissions.
Methods: In a household study, children testing RSV positive by direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA) were enrolled. Nasal washings were scheduled right away, then every three days until day 14, every 7 days until day 28 and every 2 weeks until a maximum of 16 weeks, or until the first DFA negative RSV specimen. The relationship between host factors, illness severity and viral shedding was investigated using Cox regression methods.
Results: From 151 families a total of 193 children were enrolled with a median age of 21 months (range 1-164 months), 10% infants and 46% male. The rate of recovery from infection was 0.22/person/day (95% CI 0.19-0.25) equivalent to a mean duration of shedding of 4.5 days (95% CI 4.0-5.3), with a median duration of shedding of 4 days (IQR 2-6, range 1-14). Children with a history of RSV infection had a 40% increased rate of recovery i.e. shorter duration of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). The rate of cessation of shedding did not differ significantly between males and females, by severity of infection or by age.
Conclusion: We provide evidence of a relationship between the duration of shedding and history of infection, which may have a bearing on the relative role of primary versus re-infections in RSV transmission in the
ISSN: 1471-2334
Article Number: 15
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-15

Record 264 of 726
Author(s): Yoswathana, N (Yoswathana, N.); Eshtiaghi, MN (Eshtiaghi, M. N.); Ebadi, AG (Ebadi, A. G.)
Title: Extraction of Adenosine from Ganoderma lucidum Using Novel Extraction Technologies
Source: ASIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, 22 (3): 2349-2355 MAR 2010
Abstract: The aim of this research is to extract adenosine from Ganoderma lucidum (GL) using novel extraction techniques, including high hydrostatic pressure (HIAP), ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE), supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) in comparison with maceration and Soxhlet. The results showed that the highest adenosine extraction could be achieved using HHP (1.86 mg/g dry sample at 2000 bar, 60 degrees C sample to solvent ratio of 1:60 and very short extraction time of 5 min) followed by Soxhlet (1.77 mg/g dry sample, 3 h extraction time). The effect of pressure and temperature during supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of adenosine were distinct at pressure higher than 400 bar and moderate temperature (0.40 mg/g dry sample at 500 bar and 60 degrees C). The combination of maceration and ultrasonic at moderate temperature (60 degrees C) improved the extractability of adenosine up 1.01 mg/g dry sample.
ISSN: 0970-7077

Record 265 of 726
Author(s): Yodyingyong, S (Yodyingyong, Supan); Zhang, QF (Zhang, Qifeng); Park, K (Park, Kwangsuk); Dandeneau, CS (Dandeneau, Christopher S.); Zhou, XY (Zhou, Xiaoyuan); Triampo, D (Triampo, Darapond); Cao, GZ (Cao, Guozhong)
Title: ZnO nanoparticles and nanowire array hybrid photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells
Source: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 96 (7): Art. No. 073115 FEB 15 2010
Abstract: ZnO nanoparticle-nanowire (NP-NW) array hybrid photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) with NW arrays to serve as a direct pathway for fast electron transport and NPs dispersed between NWs to offer a high specific surface area for sufficient dye adsorption has been fabricated and investigated to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The overall PCE of the ZnO hybrid photoanode DSC with the N3-sensitized has reached similar to 4.2%, much higher than both similar to 1.58% of ZnO NW DSC and similar to 1.31% of ZnO NP DSC, prepared and tested under otherwise identical conditions.
ISSN: 0003-6951
Article Number: 073115
DOI: 10.1063/1.3327339

Record 266 of 726
Author(s): Menakongka, A (Menakongka, Apaporn); Suthiphongchai, T (Suthiphongchai, Tuangporn)
Title: Involvement of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways in hepatocyte growth factor-induced cholangiocarcinoma cell invasion
Source: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 16 (6): 713-722 FEB 14 2010
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell invasiveness and the mechanisms underlying such cellular responses.
METHODS: Effects of HGF on cell invasion and motility were investigated in two human CCA cell lines, HuCCA-1 and KKU-M213, using Transwell in vitro assay. Levels of proteins of interest and their phosphorylated forms were determined by Western blotting. Localization of E-cadherin was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and visualized under confocal microscope. Activities of matrix degrading enzymes were determined by zymography.
RESULTS: Both CCA cell lines expressed higher Met levels than the H69 immortalized cholangiocyte cell line. HGF induced invasion and motility of the cell lines and altered E-cadherin from membrane to cytoplasm localization, but did not affect the levels of secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator, key matrix degrading enzymes involved in cell invasion. Concomitantly, HGF stimulated Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation but with slightly different kinetic profiles in the two cell lines. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, markedly suppressed HGF-stimulated invasion of both CCA cell lines, and inhibition of the ERK pathway by U0126 suppressed HGF-induced invasion of the KKU-M213 cell line but had a moderate effect on HuCCA-1 cells.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that HGF promotes CCA cell invasiveness through dys-localization of E-cadherin and induction of cell motility by distinct signaling pathways depending on cell line type. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1007-9327
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i6.713

Record 267 of 726
Author(s): Akaraviputh, T (Akaraviputh, Thawatchai); Arunakul, S (Arunakul, Satida); Lohsiriwat, V (Lohsiriwat, Varut); Iramaneerat, C (Iramaneerat, Cherdsak); Trakarnsanga, A (Trakarnsanga, Atthaphorn)
Title: Surgery for gastrointestinal malignant melanoma: Experience from surgical training center
Source: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 16 (6): 745-748 FEB 14 2010
Abstract: AIM: To characterize clinical features, surgery, outcome, and survival of malignant melanoma (MM) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a surgical training center in Bangkok, Thailand.
METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for all patients with MM of the GI tract treated at our institution between 1997 and 2007.
RESULTS: Fourteen patients had GI involvement either in a metastatic form or as a primary melanoma. Thirteen patients with sufficient data were reviewed. The median age of the patients was 66 years (range: 32-87 years). Ten patients were female and three were male. Seven patients had primary melanomas of the anal canal, stomach and the sigmoid colon (5, 1 and 1 cases, respectively). Seven patients underwent curative resections: three abdominoperineal resections, two wide local excisions, one total gastrectomy and one sigmoidectomy. Six patients had distant metastatic lesions at the time of diagnosis, which made curative resection an inappropriate choice. Patients who underwent curative resection exhibited a longer mean survival time (29.7 mo, range: 10-96 mo) than did patients in the palliative group (4.8 mo, P = 0.0006).
CONCLUSION: GI MM had an unfavorable prognosis, except in patients who underwent curative resection (53.8% of cases), who had a mean survival of 29.7 mo. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1007-9327
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i6.745

Record 268 of 726
Author(s): Netsawang, J (Netsawang, Janjuree); Noisakran, S (Noisakran, Sansanee); Puttikhunt, C (Puttikhunt, Chunya); Kasinrerk, W (Kasinrerk, Watchara); Wongwiwat, W (Wongwiwat, Wiyada); Malasit, P (Malasit, Prida); Yenchitsomanus, PT (Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai); Limjindaporn, T (Limjindaporn, Thawornchai)
Title: Nuclear localization of dengue virus capsid protein is required for DAXX interaction and apoptosis
Source: VIRUS RESEARCH, 147 (2): 275-283 FEB 2010
Abstract: Dengue virus capsid protein (DENVC) localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus of dengue virus-infected cells. DENV C contains three nuclear localization signals (NLS), (6)KKAR(9), (KKSK76)-K-73, and the bipartite signal (85)RKeigrmlnilnRRRR(100). Stable HepG2 cells constitutively expressing DENV C, DENV C (Delta 85-100) and DENV C (Delta 73-100) were constructed to clarify whether nuclear translocation of DENV C affected apoptosis in liver cell line. While the wild-type DENV C could translocate into the nuclei of HepG2 cells, the mutant DENV Cs were restricted to the cytoplasm. The loss of nuclear localization of both mutant DENV Cs resulted in the disruption of their interactions with the apoptotic protein Daxx. Interestingly, upon treatment with anti-Fas antibody, the HepG2 cells expressing the wild-type DENV C showed significantly more apoptosis compared with the HepG2 cells expressing either mutant DENV C. To identify the amino acids required for DAXX interaction and apoptosis, substitution mutations either (K73A/K74A) or (R85A/K86A) were introduced into the C-terminal region of DENV C, and tested whether these mutations affected its interaction with Daxx and apoptosis. The results demonstrate that (KK)-K-73 and (RK)-R-85 of DENV C are important for its nuclear localization, interaction with DAXX and induction of apoptosis. This work is the first to demonstrate that nuclear localization of DENV C is required for DAXX interaction and apoptosis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0168-1702
DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2009.11.012

Record 269 of 726
Author(s): Sawasdidoln, C (Sawasdidoln, Chakrit); Taweechaisupapong, S (Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol); Sermswan, RW (Sermswan, Rasana W.); Tattawasart, U (Tattawasart, Unchalee); Tungpradabkul, S (Tungpradabkul, Sumalee); Wongratanacheewin, S (Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi)
Title: Growing Burkholderia pseudomallei in Biofilm Stimulating Conditions Significantly Induces Antimicrobial Resistance
Source: PLOS ONE, 5 (2): Art. No. e9196 FEB 12 2010
Abstract: Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis, was reported to produce biofilm. As the disease causes high relapse rate when compared to other bacterial infections, it therefore might be due to the reactivation of the biofilm forming bacteria which also provided resistance to antimicrobial agents. However, the mechanism on how biofilm can provide tolerance to antimicrobials is still unclear.
Methodology/Principal Findings: The change in resistance of B. pseudomallei to doxycycline, ceftazidime, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during biofilm formation were measured as minimum biofilm elimination concentration (MBEC) in 50 soil and clinical isolates and also in capsule, flagellin, LPS and biofilm mutants. Almost all planktonic isolates were susceptible to all agents studied. In contrast, when they were grown in the condition that induced biofilm formation, they were markedly resistant to all antimicrobial agents even though the amount of biofilm production was not the same. The capsule and O-side chains of LPS mutants had no effect on biofilm formation whereas the flagellin-defective mutant markedly reduced in biofilm production. No alteration of LPS profiles was observed when susceptible form was changed to resistance. The higher amount of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) was detected in the high biofilm-producing isolates. Interestingly, the biofilm mutant which produced a very low amount of biofilm and was sensitive to antimicrobial agents significantly resisted those agents when grown in biofilm inducing condition.
Conclusions/Significance: The possible drug resistance mechanism of biofilm mutants and other isolates is not by having biofilm but rather from some factors that up-regulated when biofilm formation genes were stimulated. The understanding of genes related to this situation may lead us to prevent B. pseudomallei biofilms leading to the relapse of melioidosis.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Article Number: e9196
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009196

Record 270 of 726
Author(s): Miotto, O (Miotto, Olivo); Heiny, AT (Heiny, A. T.); Albrecht, R (Albrecht, Randy); Garcia-Sastre, A (Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo); Tan, TW (Tan, Tin Wee); August, JT (August, J. Thomas); Brusic, V (Brusic, Vladimir)
Title: Complete-Proteome Mapping of Human Influenza A Adaptive Mutations: Implications for Human Transmissibility of Zoonotic Strains
Source: PLOS ONE, 5 (2): Art. No. e9025 FEB 3 2010
Abstract: Background: There is widespread concern that H5N1 avian influenza A viruses will emerge as a pandemic threat, if they become capable of human-to-human (H2H) transmission. Avian strains lack this capability, which suggests that it requires important adaptive mutations. We performed a large-scale comparative analysis of proteins from avian and human strains, to produce a catalogue of mutations associated with H2H transmissibility, and to detect their presence in avian isolates.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We constructed a dataset of influenza A protein sequences from 92,343 public database records. Human and avian sequence subsets were compared, using a method based on mutual information, to identify characteristic sites where human isolates present conserved mutations. The resulting catalogue comprises 68 characteristic sites in eight internal proteins. Subtype variability prevented the identification of adaptive mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. The high number of sites in the ribonucleoprotein complex suggests interdependence between mutations in multiple proteins. Characteristic sites are often clustered within known functional regions, suggesting their functional roles in cellular processes. By isolating and concatenating characteristic site residues, we defined adaptation signatures, which summarize the adaptive potential of specific isolates. Most adaptive mutations emerged within three decades after the 1918 pandemic, and have remained remarkably stable thereafter. Two lineages with stable internal protein constellations have circulated among humans without reassorting. On the contrary, H5N1 avian and swine viruses reassort frequently, causing both gains and losses of adaptive mutations.
Conclusions: Human host adaptation appears to be complex and systemic, involving nearly all influenza proteins. Adaptation signatures suggest that the ability of H5N1 strains to infect humans is related to the presence of an unusually high number of adaptive mutations. However, these mutations appear unstable, suggesting low pandemic potential of H5N1 in its current form. In addition, adaptation signatures indicate that pandemic H1N1/09 strain possesses multiple human-transmissibility mutations, though not an unusually high number with respect to swine strains that infected humans in the past. Adaptation signatures provide a novel tool for identifying zoonotic strains with the potential to infect humans.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Article Number: e9025
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009025

Record 271 of 726
Author(s): Becquart, P (Becquart, Pierre); Wauquier, N (Wauquier, Nadia); Mahlakoiv, T (Mahlakoiv, Tanel); Nkoghe, D (Nkoghe, Dieudonne); Padilla, C (Padilla, Cindy); Souris, M (Souris, Marc); Ollomo, B (Ollomo, Benjamin); Gonzalez, JP (Gonzalez, Jean-Paul); De Lamballerie, X (De Lamballerie, Xavier); Kazanji, M (Kazanji, Mirdad); Leroy, EM (Leroy, Eric M.)
Title: High Prevalence of Both Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among Rural Populations in Gabon
Source: PLOS ONE, 5 (2): Art. No. e9126 FEB 9 2010
Abstract: To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 15.3% overall, the highest ever reported. The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in forested areas (19.4%) than in other ecosystems, namely grassland (12.4%), savannah (10.5%), and lakeland (2.7%). No other risk factors for seropositivity were found. The specificity of anti-ZEBOV IgG was confirmed by Western blot in 138 individuals, and CD8 T cells from seven IgG+ individuals were shown to produce IFN-gamma after ZEBOV stimulation. Together, these findings show that a large fraction of the human population living in forested areas of Gabon has both humoral and cellular immunity to ZEBOV. In the absence of identified risk factors, the high prevalence of "immune'' persons suggests a common source of human exposure such as fruits contaminated by bat saliva. These findings provide significant new insights into ZEBOV circulation and human exposure, and raise important questions as to the human pathogenicity of ZEBOV and the existence of natural protective immunization.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Article Number: e9126
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009126

Record 272 of 726
Author(s): Arayasantiparb, R (Arayasantiparb, Raweewan); Tsuchimochi, M (Tsuchimochi, Makoto)
Title: Quantification of disc displacement in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint using magnetic resonance imaging
Source: ODONTOLOGY, 98 (1): 73-81 FEB 2010
Abstract: Many measures have been developed to determine the extent of disc displacement in internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative method of analyzing disc position and to evaluate the positions of the disc in internal derangements of the TMJ (group 1, with reduction; group 2, without reduction). Magnetic resonance images of 150 TMJs in 20 healthy volunteers and 55 patients with internal derangements were evaluated. The anatomical points of interest of the TMJ, including the anterior (DA) and posterior (DP) points of the disc, were marked on parasagittal magnetic resonance images of the TMJ disc taken in both the closed- and the open-mouth positions. All points were recorded using an x-y coordinate system, with reference to a referral line. In the closed-mouth position, the DP in patients in group 1 was situated in a more-anterior direction than the DP in volunteers. The DP in group 2 was located further anterior and inferior than the DP in group 1. However, the position of the DA did not differ between group 1 and group 2. In the open-mouth position, the DP was displaced anteroinferiorly to a greater extent in group 2 than in group 1 (one-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffe's test; P < 0.0001). The distance between the disc points in the closed- and open-mouth positions was also evaluated. Comparison of the disc point position in the closed- and open-mouth positions in symptomatic and asymptomatic displaced TMJ discs revealed no significant difference. In conclusion, most of our results quantitatively support previously reported findings in imaging, surgical, and histopathological studies of TMJ internal derangement. We suggest that our measure of disc position of the TMJ would be useful to assess the status and response to treatment of internal derangements of the TMJ.
ISSN: 1618-1247
DOI: 10.1007/s10266-009-0115-6

Record 273 of 726
Author(s): Barbazan, P (Barbazan, P.); Guiserix, M (Guiserix, M.); Boonyuan, W (Boonyuan, W.); Tuntaprasart, W (Tuntaprasart, W.); Pontier, D (Pontier, D.); Gonzalez, JP (Gonzalez, J. -P.)
Title: Modelling the effect of temperature on transmission of dengue
Abstract: The main entomological parameters involved in the rate of dengue virus transmission include the longevity of female mosquitoes, the time interval between bites and the extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Field and laboratory data provide estimates for these parameters, but their interactions with other factors (e.g. host population density and environmental parameters) make their integration into a transmission model quite complex. To estimate the impact of these parameters on transmission, we developed a model of virus transmission by a vector population which predicts the number of potentially infective bites under a range of temperatures and entomological parameters, including the daily survival rate of females, the interval between bites and the extrinsic incubation period. Results show that in a stable population, an increase in mosquito longevity disproportionately enhances the number of potential transmissions (e.g. by as much as five times when the survival rate rises from 0.80 to 0.95). Halving the length of the biting interval with a 10-degrees C rise in temperature increases the transmission rate by at least 2.4 times. Accordingly, the model can predict changes in dengue transmission associated with short-term variation in seasonal temperature and also with potentially long-lasting increases in global temperatures.
ISSN: 0269-283X

Record 274 of 726
Author(s): Kachaiyaphum, P (Kachaiyaphum, Prasit); Howteerakul, N (Howteerakul, Nopporn); Sujirarat, D (Sujirarat, Dusit); Siri, S (Siri, Sukhontha); Suwannapong, N (Suwannapong, Nawarat)
Title: Serum Cholinesterase Levels of Thai Chilli-Farm Workers Exposed to Chemical Pesticides: Prevalence Estimates and Associated Factors
Source: JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, 52 (1): 89-98 JAN 2010
Abstract: Serum Cholinesterase Levels of Thai Chilli-Farm Workers Exposed to Chemical Pesticides: Prevalence Estimates and Associated Factors: Prasit KACHAIYAPHUM, et al. Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Thailand-Objective: To estimate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, abnormal serum cholinesterase (SChE) levels among chilli-farm workers in Chatturat District, Chaiyaphum Province Methods: A total of 350 chilli-farm workers aged 18-60 yr were randomly sampled and interviewed A reactive-paper finger-blood test was used to assess SChE levels Results: The prevalence of abnormal SChE levels was 32.0%. The most common pesticide-related symptoms were dizziness (38.0%), headache (30.9%), nausea/vomiting (26.9%), and fever (26.9%) Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed 7 factors were independently associated with abnormal SChE level male gender, single/separated/divorced, being a permanent worker, spraying pesticide more than 3 times per month, having moderate or poor pesticide-use behaviors, and low perceived susceptibility and severity of pesticide use. Conclusions: The prevalence of abnormal SChE levels among chilli-farm workers was quite high. It would be beneficial to decrease pesticide use and encourage alternative measures. Effective preventive interventions to increase correct perceptions of pesticide use, the use of personal protective measures and continuing monitoring for blood cholinesterase, especially for male permanent farm workers, are recommended (J Occup Health 2010, 52 89-98)
ISSN: 1341-9145

Record 275 of 726
Author(s): Lawung, R (Lawung, Ratana); Charoenwatanachokchai, A (Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana); Cherdtrakulkiat, R (Cherdtrakulkiat, Rungrot); Thammapiwan, S (Thammapiwan, Sivarak); Mungniponpan, T (Mungniponpan, Tharinda); Bulow, L (Bulow, Leif); Prachayasittikul, V (Prachayasittikul, Virapong)
Title: Antibiograms and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reactions (RAPD-PCR) as Epidemiological Markers of Gonorrhea
Abstract: The development of antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae arising from wide dissemination of resistant clones is a major global health problem. In this study, a total of 235 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from patients of Bangrak Hospital were tested for their antibiotic susceptibilities to penicillin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone. Mutation (Ser-91) in the quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA and random amplification of the polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) were examined from 145 isolates. Among these, 55 isolates were obtained during January-March 2000, 46 isolates during January-March 2002, and 44 isolates during October-December 2002. The occurrence of combination resistance between penicillin and quinolone was 20% in January-March 2000, which was increased to 57.8% during the period of October-December 2002 (P<0.0001). Mutation of Ser-91 in gyrA could be directly linked with the resistance or declining of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Using RAPD-PCR, we could classify the 145 isolates into 4 and 5 groups by primers D11344 (5'-AGTGAATTCGCGGTGAGATGCCA-3') and D8635 (5'-GAGCGGCCAAAGGGAG-CA GAC-3'), respectively. Combination of the data obtained from these two primers produced 11 fingerprint groups. Our findings conclude that monitoring of the Ser-91 mutation of gyrA and RAPD-PCR methods are most useful for epidemiological screening. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 24:31-37, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ISSN: 0887-8013
DOI: 10.1002/jcla.20355

Record 276 of 726
Author(s): Thongboonkerd, V (Thongboonkerd, Visith)
Title: Proteomics in extracorporeal blood purification and peritoneal dialysis
Source: JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS, 73 (3): 521-526 Sp. Iss. SI JAN 3 2010
Abstract: Extracorporeal blood purification and peritoneal dialysis are widely used in renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Additionally, extracorporeal blood purification can be used also for treatment of non-renal disorders to remove endogenous or exogenous toxins from the blood circulation. Efforts have been made to characterize these toxins removed by diffusion (dialysis), convection (ultrafiltration), and/or adsorption (toxins are adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane and are thus removed) using different types of dialysis membrane. This review summarizes important findings obtained from recent proteomic studies applied to extracorporeal blood purification and peritoneal dialysis in settings of ESRD, AKI and hepatic failure. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1874-3919
DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2009.06.003

Record 277 of 726
Author(s): Sintiprungrat, K (Sintiprungrat, Kitisak); Singhto, N (Singhto, Nilubon); Sinchaikul, S (Sinchaikul, Supachok); Chen, ST (Chen, Shui-Tein); Thongboonkerd, V (Thongboonkerd, Visith)
Title: Alterations in cellular proteome and secretome upon differentiation from monocyte to macrophage by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate: Insights into biological processes
Source: JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS, 73 (3): 602-618 Sp. Iss. SI JAN 3 2010
Abstract: Monocyte and macrophage are mainly involved in immune response and inflammatory processes. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream and migrate to various tissues where they can differentiate to macrophages. However, the molecular basis of biological processes involved in this cellular differentiation remains ambiguous. This study was to investigate alterations in cellular and secreted proteins after this differentiation phase. Macrophage was differentiated from U937 human monocytic cell line by treatment with 100 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) for 48 h. Cellular and secreted proteins extracted from PMA-treated cells (macrophages) were compared with those of untreated cells (monocytes) using 2-DE (n=5 gels/condition; stained with Deep Purple fluorescence dye). Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 81 and 67 protein spots whose levels were significantly altered in cellular proteome and secretome. These proteins were subsequently identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of cellular elongation factor-2 (EF-2) and secreted alpha-tubulin were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Global protein network analysis demonstrated that these altered proteins were involved in cell death, lipid metabolism, cell morphology, cellular movement, and protein folding. our data may provide some insights into molecular mechanisms of biological processes upon differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1874-3919
DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2009.08.001

Record 278 of 726
Author(s): Atchaneeyasakul, LO (Atchaneeyasakul, La-ongsri); Trinavarat, A (Trinavarat, Adisak); Pituksung, A (Pituksung, Auengporn); Jinda, W (Jinda, Worapoj); Thongnoppakhun, W (Thongnoppakhun, Wanna); Limwongse, C (Limwongse, Chanin)
Title: Mutations in the XLRS1 gene in Thai families with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis
Abstract: To identify genetic mutations of the XLRS1 gene and to describe the ocular phenotypes in two unrelated Thai patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.
Ophthalmic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and fundus examination and photography, was performed in all participants. Electroretinography (ERG) and optical coherence tomography were performed when possible. All six exons of the XLRS1 gene were amplified, and mutation screening was determined by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing.
Two point mutations were identified, a novel missense mutation c.378A > G (p.D126G) in exon 5 and a reported mutation c.637C > T (p.R213W) in exon 6. The first proband with the p.D126G mutation developed vitreous hemorrhage in both eyes at age 7 months. Foveal and peripheral schisis with several inner layer holes were detected in both eyes. The second proband with the p.R213W mutation developed slightly blurred vision at age 10 years. Fundus examination showed numerous fine white dots at the macula without foveal or peripheral schisis. Electronegative ERG results were documented in both probands.
A novel p.D126G mutation appeared to be associated with a severe phenotype with vitreous hemorrhage developing in infancy. Both intra- and interfamilial clinical variabilities were recognized in our patients.
ISSN: 0021-5155
DOI: 10.1007/s10384-009-0748-6

Record 279 of 726
Author(s): Prabhasawat, P (Prabhasawat, Pinnita); Leelaporn, A (Leelaporn, Amornrut); Tesavibul, N (Tesavibul, Nattaporn); Uiprasertkul, M (Uiprasertkul, Mongkol); Chirapapaisan, C (Chirapapaisan, Chareenun)
Title: Molecular identification by 16S rDNA sequencing using excised corneal tissues: A useful diagnostic tool for refractory keratitis
ISSN: 0021-5155
DOI: 10.1007/s10384-009-0768-2

Record 280 of 726
Author(s): Nuinoon, M (Nuinoon, Manit); Makarasara, W (Makarasara, Wattanan); Mushiroda, T (Mushiroda, Taisei); Setianingsih, I (Setianingsih, Iswari); Wahidiyat, PA (Wahidiyat, Pustika Amalia); Sripichai, O (Sripichai, Orapan); Kumasaka, N (Kumasaka, Natsuhiko); Takahashi, A (Takahashi, Atsushi); Svasti, S (Svasti, Saovaros); Munkongdee, T (Munkongdee, Thongperm); Mahasirimongkol, S (Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth); Peerapittayamongkol, C (Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon); Viprakasit, V (Viprakasit, Vip); Kamatani, N (Kamatani, Naoyuki); Winichagoon, P (Winichagoon, Pranee); Kubo, M (Kubo, Michiaki); Nakamura, Y (Nakamura, Yusuke); Fucharoen, S (Fucharoen, Suthat)
Title: A genome-wide association identified the common genetic variants influence disease severity in beta(0)-thalassemia/hemoglobin E
Source: HUMAN GENETICS, 127 (3): 303-314 MAR 2010
Abstract: beta-Thalassemia/HbE disease is clinically variable. In searching for genetic factors modifying the disease severity, patients were selected based on their disease severities, and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Genotyping was conducted with the Illumina Human 610-Quad BeadChips array using DNAs from 618 Thai beta(0)-thalassemia/HbE patients who were classified as 383 severe and 235 mild phenotypes by a validated scoring system. Twenty-three SNPs in three independent genes/regions were identified as being significantly associated with the disease severity. The highest association was observed with SNPs in the beta-globin gene cluster (chr.11p15), and rs2071348 of the HBBP1 gene revealed the most significant association [P = 2.96 x 10(-13), odds ratio (OR) = 4.33 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.74-6.84)]. The second was identified in the intergenic region between the HBS1L and MYB genes (chr.6q23), among which rs9376092 was the most significant [P = 2.36 x 10(-10), OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 2.16-4.38)]. The third region was located in the BCL11A gene (chr.2p16.1), and rs766432 showed the most significant association [P = 5.87 x 10(-10), OR = 3.06 (95% CI, 2.15-4.37)]. All three loci were replicated in an independent cohort of 174 Indonesian patients. The associations to fetal hemoglobin levels were also observed with SNPs on these three regions. Our data indicate that several genetic loci act in concert to influence HbF levels of beta(0)-thalassemia/HbE patients. This study revealed that all the three reported loci and the alpha-globin gene locus are the best and common predictors of the disease severity in beta-thalassemia.
ISSN: 0340-6717
DOI: 10.1007/s00439-009-0770-2

Record 281 of 726
Author(s): Thamwiriyasati, N (Thamwiriyasati, Niramon); Powthongchin, B (Powthongchin, Busaba); Kittiworakarn, J (Kittiworakarn, Jongrak); Katzenmeier, G (Katzenmeier, Gerd); Angsuthanasombat, C (Angsuthanasombat, Chanan)
Title: Esterase activity of Bordetella pertussis CyaC-acyltransferase against synthetic substrates: implications for catalytic mechanism in vivo
Source: FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS, 304 (2): 183-190 MAR 2010
Abstract: Adenylate cyclase-hemolysin toxin (CyaA) produced from the human respiratory tract pathogen Bordetella pertussis requires fatty-acyl modification by CyaC-acyltransferase to become an active toxin. Previously, the recombinant CyaA pore-forming (CyaA-PF) fragment expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be hemolytically active upon palmitoylation in vivo by cosynthesized CyaC. Here, the 21-kDa CyaC enzyme separately expressed in E. coli as an inclusion body was solubilized in 8 M urea and successfully refolded into an enzymatically active monomer. In addition to the capability of activating CyaA-PF in vitro, CyaC showed esterase activity against p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP), with preferential hydrolysis toward pNPP when compared with chymotrypsin. A homology-based CyaC structure suggested a conceivable role of a catalytic triad including Ser30, His33 and Tyr66 in substrate catalysis. Alanine substitutions of these individual residues caused a drastic decrease in specific activities of all three mutant enzymes (S30A, H33A and Y66A) toward pNPP, signifying that CyaC-acyltransferase shares a similar mechanism of hydrolysis with a serine esterase in which Ser30 is part of the catalytic triad.
ISSN: 0378-1097
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.01896.x

Record 282 of 726
Author(s): Boonchird, C (Boonchird, C.); Mahapanichkul, T (Mahapanichkul, T.); Cherdshewasart, W (Cherdshewasart, W.)
Title: Differential binding with ER alpha and ER beta of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Pueraria mirifica
Abstract: Variations in the estrogenic activity of the phytoestrogen-rich plant, Pueraria mirifica, were determined with yeast estrogen screen (YES) consisting of human estrogen receptors (hER) hER alpha and hER beta and human transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (hTIF2) or human steroid receptor coactivator 1 (hSRC1), respectively, together with the beta-galactosidase expression cassette. Relative estrogenic potency was expressed by determining the beta-galactosidase activity (EC50) of the tuber extracts in relation to 17 beta-estradiol. Twenty-four and 22 of the plant tuber ethanolic extracts interacted with hER alpha and hER beta, respectively, with a higher relative estrogenic potency with hER beta than with hER alpha. Antiestrogenic activity of the plant extracts was also determined by incubation of plant extracts with 17 beta-estradiol prior to YES assay. The plant extracts tested exhibited antiestrogenic activity. Both the estrogenic and the antiestrogenic activity of the tuber extracts were metabolically activated with the rat liver S9-fraction prior to the assay indicating the positive influence of liver enzymes. Correlation analysis between estrogenic potency and the five major isoflavonoid contents within the previously HPLC-analyzed tuberous samples namely puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein revealed a negative result.
ISSN: 0100-879X

Record 283 of 726
Author(s): Nakano, K (Nakano, K.); Nomura, R (Nomura, R.); Taniguchi, N (Taniguchi, N.); Lapirattanakul, J (Lapirattanakul, J.); Kojima, A (Kojima, A.); Naka, S (Naka, S.); Senawongse, P (Senawongse, P.); Srisatjaluk, R (Srisatjaluk, R.); Gronroos, L (Gronroos, L.); Alaluusua, S (Alaluusua, S.); Matsumoto, M (Matsumoto, M.); Ooshima, T (Ooshima, T.)
Title: Molecular characterization of Streptococcus mutans strains containing the cnm gene encoding a collagen-binding adhesin
Source: ARCHIVES OF ORAL BIOLOGY, 55 (1): 34-39 JAN 2010
Abstract: Objective: Streptococcus mutans, known to be a major pathogen of dental caries, is also considered to cause infective endocarditis. its 120-kDa Cnm protein binds to type I collagen, which may be a potential virulence factor. In this study, we characterized S. mutans clinical strains focusing on the cnm gene encoding Cnm.
Design: A total of 528 S. mutans strains isolated from Japanese, Finnish, and Thai subjects were investigated. Using molecular techniques, the distribution frequency of cnm-positive strains and location of the inserted cnm were analyzed. Furthermore, isogenic mutant strains were constructed by inactivation of the cnm gene, then their biological properties of collagen-binding and glucan-binding were evaluated. Southern hybridization of the genes encoding glucan-binding proteins was also performed.
Results: The distribution frequency of cnm-positive strains from Thai subjects was 12%, similar to that previously reported for Japanese and Finnish subjects. Furthermore, the location of insertion of cnm was the same in all cnm-positive clinical isolates. As for the cnm-inactivated mutant strains constructed from 28 clinical isolates, their collagen-binding activity was negligible. in addition, glucan-binding activity in the crim-positive clinical isolates was significantly reduced and corresponded to a lack of gbpA encoding glucan-binding protein A.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that strains with cnm genes, the most crucial factor for the collagen-binding property of S. mutans, are detectable at similar frequencies over several different geographic locations. In addition, the common properties of these strains are a high level of collagen-binding activity and tendency for a low level of glucan-binding activity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0003-9969
DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2009.11.008

Record 284 of 726
Author(s): Kitani, S (Kitani, Shigeru); Doi, M (Doi, Masashi); Shimizu, T (Shimizu, Tomohito); Maeda, A (Maeda, Asa); Nihira, T (Nihira, Takuya)
Title: Control of secondary metabolism by farX, which is involved in the gamma-butyrolactone biosynthesis of Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5
Source: ARCHIVES OF MICROBIOLOGY, 192 (3): 211-220 MAR 2010
Abstract: The gamma-butyrolactone signaling system is distributed widely among streptomycetes as an important regulatory mechanism of antibiotic production and/or morphological differentiation. IM-2 [(2R,3R,1'R)-2-(1'-hydroxybutyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butanolide] is a gamma-butyrolactone that switches off the production of d-cycloserine but switches on the production of several nucleoside antibiotics as well as blue pigment in Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5. farX is a member of the afsA-family genes, which are proposed to encode enzymes involved in gamma-butyrolactone biosynthesis. Disruption of farX caused overproduction of d-cycloserine, and abolished production of nucleoside antibiotic and blue pigment with the loss of IM-2 production. The finding that all phenotypic changes observed in the farX disruptant were restored by the addition of exogenous IM-2 suggested that FarX plays a biosynthetic role in IM-2 production. Transcriptional comparison between the wild-type strain and the farX disruptant revealed that, in addition to already known genes farR1 and farR2, several other genes (farR4, farD, and farE) are under the transcriptional regulation of IM-2. Furthermore, the fact that farX transcription is under the control of IM-2 suggested that S. lavendulae FRI-5 has a fine-tuning system to control gamma-butyrolactone production.
ISSN: 0302-8933
DOI: 10.1007/s00203-010-0550-3

Record 285 of 726
Author(s): Vongvatcharanon, U (Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn); Khornchatri, K (Khornchatri, Kanjana); Udomuksorn, W (Udomuksorn, Wandee); Kumarnsit, E (Kumarnsit, Ekkasit); Vongvatcharanon, S (Vongvatcharanon, Surapong); Sbhon, P (Sbhon, Prasert)
Title: Influence of aging and long-term swimming exercise on parvalbumin distribution in rat hearts
Source: ACTA HISTOCHEMICA, 112 (1): 72-80 2010
Abstract: Parvalbumin (PV), which is a small (12 kDa) cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein, has been implicated in mediating relaxation in cardiac myocytes. The influence of aging and exercise on the distribution of PV in rat heart was investigated. Mate Wistar rats aged 3, 6, 12 and 18-months were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The exercise group underwent exercise in the form of regular swimming for 6 months. The hearts were processed for immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The intensity of PV immunoreactivity was strong in the 9 and 12-month hearts and decreased in the 18-month hearts. The smallest amount was detected in the 24-month rat hearts when compared to those of the 9, 12 and 18-month rat hearts. Significantly less PV was detected in the 18 and 24-month hearts compared to the 12-month rat hearts (P<0.05). The intensity of PV immunoreactivity was considerably stronger in hearts of the 9, 12 and 18-months exercised rats than in hearts of age-matched sedentary rats. However, in the hearts of 24-month rats, immunoreactivity was only slightly stronger in the exercised rats in comparison with those of sedentary rats. A significant increase of PV detection in hearts was found in the exercised rats in comparison with sedentary rats in the 9 (P<0.05) and 18-month samples (P<0.01). Our data indicate that IDV is down-regulated in the rat heart during aging. In addition, our data indicate that long-term swimming exercise could induce an increase of PV expression. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0065-1281
DOI: 10.1016/j.acthis.2008.09.001

Record 286 of 726
Author(s): Vongvatcharanon, U (Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn); Udomuksorn, W (Udomuksorn, Wandee); Vongvatcharanon, S (Vongvatcharanon, Surapong); Sobhon, P (Sobhon, Prasert)
Title: Age-related changes in parvalbumin in the heart of female rats
Source: ACTA HISTOCHEMICA, 112 (1): 96-100 2010
Abstract: Changes of parvalbumin protein levels and immunolocalisation during the postnatal development of the female rat heart were investigated in order to determine if they were correlated with age-related changes in cardiac function. Hearts from newborn, 3-month-old (young), 6-month-old (young adult) and 12-month-old (adult) female Wistar rats were processed for immunohistochemical localization of parvalbumin and for Western blotting assay. Parvalbumin was detected by both methods in all age groups from newborn to 12-month-old rats. In the newborn rat heart, parvalbumin immunoreactivity did not fully fill the sarcoplasm of the cardiac myocytes and the amount of parvalbumin was tow compared to the adult levels. in contrast, in 3-12-month-old rats, strong parvalbumin immunoreactivity was detected throughout the sarcoplasm of all cardiac myocytes and the amount of parvalbumin increased with increasing age (from newborn to adult). Our study indicates that an increase of parvalbumin levels in the female rat heart with increasing age may be associated with maintenance of proper relaxation of the cardiac myocytes needed to cope with the increasing workload of the heart during postnatal growth. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0065-1281
DOI: 10.1016/j.acthis.2008.07.004

Record 287 of 726
Author(s): Lohsiriwat, V (Lohsiriwat, Varut)
Title: Colonoscopic perforation: Incidence, risk factors, management and outcome
Source: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 16 (4): 425-430 JAN 28 2010
Abstract: This review discusses the incidence, risk factors, management and outcome of colonoscopic perforation (CP). The incidence of CP ranges from 0.016% to 0.2% following diagnostic colonoscopies and could be up to 5% following some colonoscopic interventions. The perforations are frequently related to therapeutic colonoscopies and are associated with patients of advanced age or with multiple comorbidities. Management of CP is mainly based on patients' clinical grounds and their underlying colorectal diseases. Current therapeutic approaches include conservative management (bowel rest plus the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics), endoscopic management, and operative management (open or laparoscopic approach). The applications of each treatment are discussed. Overall outcomes of patients with CP are also addressed. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1007-9327
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i4.425

Record 288 of 726
Author(s): Thong-On, A (Thong-On, Arunee); Smittipat, N (Smittipat, Nat); Juthayothin, T (Juthayothin, Tada); Yanai, H (Yanai, Hideki); Yamada, N (Yamada, Norio); Yorsangsukkamol, J (Yorsangsukkamol, Jutaporn); Chaiprasert, A (Chaiprasert, Angkana); Rienthong, D (Rienthong, Dhanida); Billamas, P (Billamas, Pamaree); Palittapongarnpim, P (Palittapongarnpim, Prasit)
Title: Variable-number tandem repeats typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with low copy numbers of IS6110 in Thailand
Source: TUBERCULOSIS, 90 (1): 9-15 JAN 2010
Abstract: Spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing have been increasingly used for differentiating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with low copy numbers of IS6110. However, there are few studies comparing their potential to type the strains originating from South and Southeast Asia where many of the isolates have only a few copies, or even single copy, of IS6110. Here, we evaluated the genotyping of 187 M. tuberculosis isolates harboring 1-6 copies of IS6110, available from a population-based study in Chiangrai, northern Thailand during 1998-2000, using spoligotyping and VNTR typing. The low-copy-number isolates constituted about 34% of all M. tuberculosis isolated in the province. Discriminating capacities and cluster identification by the two methods were compared with each other and to those obtained by the standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. We found that VNTR typing based on the studied 10-loci set generated more distinct patterns (151 patterns) than spoligotyping (54 patterns) and IS6110-RFLP (65 patterns). Most of the RFLP- or spoligotyping-defined clusters were subdivided by VNTR typing. Combining IS6110-RFLP with VNTR typing produced 164 distinct patterns and 21.9% of clustered isolates whereas the combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping gave 103 different patterns and 59.4% of clustered isolates. Our results confirm the utility of VNTR typing as the secondary method of choice for investigating the epidemiology of M. tuberculosis with low copy numbers of IS6110. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1472-9792
DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2009.10.006

Record 289 of 726
Author(s): Lowenberg, EC (Lowenberg, Ester C.); Charunwatthana, P (Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew); Cohen, S (Cohen, Sophie); van den Born, BJ (van den Born, Bert-Jan); Meijers, JCM (Meijers, Joost C. M.); Yunus, EB (Yunus, Emran B.); Hassan, MU (Hassan, Mahtab U.); Hoque, G (Hoque, Gofranul); Maude, RJ (Maude, Richard J.); Nuchsongsin, F (Nuchsongsin, Forradee); Levi, M (Levi, Marcel); Dondorp, AM (Dondorp, Arjen M.)
Title: Severe malaria is associated with a deficiency of von Willebrand factor cleaving protease, ADAMTS13
Source: THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, 103 (1): 181-187 JAN 2010
Abstract: Severe falciparum malaria remains a major killer in tropical countries. Central in the pathophysiology is mechanical obstruction in the microcirculation caused by cytoadherence and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes. However, the pathogenesis of many features complicating severe malaria, including coma, renal failure and thrombocytopenia, remains incompletely understood. These disease manifestations are also key features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a life-threatening disease strongly associated with a deficiency of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, ADAMTS13. We measured plasma ADAMTS13 activity, VWF antigen and VWF propeptide levels in 30 patients with severe falciparum malaria, 12 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and 14 healthy Bangladeshi controls. in patients with severe malaria ADAMTS13 activity levels were markedly decreased in comparison to normal controls (mean [95%CI]: 23% [20-26] vs. 64% [55-72]) and VWF antigen and propeptide concentrations were significantly elevated (VWF antigen: 439% [396-481] vs. 64% [46-83]; VWF propeptide: 576% [481-671] vs. 69% [59-78]). In uncomplicated malaria VWF levels were also increased compared to healthy controls but ADAMTS13 activity was normal. The results suggest that decreased ADAMTS13 activity in combination with increased VWF concentrations may contribute to the complications in severe malaria.
ISSN: 0340-6245
DOI: 10.1160/TH09-04-0223

Record 290 of 726
Author(s): Gerdsri, N (Gerdsri, Nathasit); Assakul, P (Assakul, Phensoame); Vatananan, RS (Vatananan, Ronald S.)
Title: An activity guideline for technology roadmapping implementation
Abstract: To strive for sustainability under today's intense business competition, organisations apply technology roadmapping (TRM) as a strategic planning tool to align their technology strategies with business strategies. Many organisations desire to integrate TRM into an ongoing strategic planning process. The consequences of TRM implementation can lead to some changes in the business process, organisational structure, or even working culture. Applying a change management approach will help organisations to understand the basic elements that an individual needs so that some challenges can be addressed in advance before adopting the TRM process. This paper proposes a practical guideline to implement technology roadmapping along with a case example.
ISSN: 0953-7325
DOI: 10.1080/09537320903498553

Record 291 of 726
Author(s): Attia, J (Attia, John); Thakkinstian, A (Thakkinstian, Ammarin); McElduff, P (McElduff, Patrick); Milne, E (Milne, Elizabeth); Dawson, S (Dawson, Somer); Scott, RJ (Scott, Rodney J.); de Klerk, N (de Klerk, Nicholas); Armstrong, B (Armstrong, Bruce); Thompson, J (Thompson, John)
Title: Detecting Genotyping Error Using Measures of Degree of Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium
Abstract: Tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) have been used to detect genotyping error, but those tests have low power unless the sample size is very large. We assessed the performance of measures of departure from HWE as an alternative way of screening for genotyping error. Three measures of the degree of disequilibrium (alpha, ,D, and F) were tested for their ability to detect genotyping error of 5% or more using simulations and a real dataset of 184 children with leukemia genotyped at 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The simulations indicate that all three disequilibrium coefficients can usefully detect genotyping error as judged by the area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve. Their discriminative ability increases as the error rate increases, and is greater if the genotyping error is in the direction of the minor allele. Optimal thresholds for detecting genotyping error vary for different allele frequencies and patterns of genotyping error but allele frequency-specific thresholds can be nominated. Applying these thresholds would have picked up about 90% of genotyping errors in our actual dataset. Measures of departure from HWE may be useful for detecting genotyping error, but this needs to be confirmed in other real datasets.
ISSN: 1544-6115
Article Number: 5
DOI: 10.2202/1544-6115.1463

Record 292 of 726
Author(s): Jittapalapong, S (Jittapalapong, Sathaporn); Inpankaew, T (Inpankaew, Tawin); Pinyopanuwat, N (Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch); Chimnoi, W (Chimnoi, Wissanuwat); Kengradomkij, C (Kengradomkij, Chanya); Wongnarkpet, S (Wongnarkpet, Sirichai); Maruyama, S (Maruyama, Soichi); Lekkla, A (Lekkla, Amorn); Sukthana, Y (Sukthana, Yaowalark)
Abstract: The objective of this Study was to investigate the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in stray cats in Bangkok. Sera were collected during 2006 and examined by Sabin-Feldman dye test. Five hundred sixty-four male and 926 female cats in and around monasteries from 50 districts were collected. Toxplasma gondii was detected in 72 (4.8%) of 1,490 cats. The prevalence was significantly higher in females (5.6%) than in males (3.6%). Cats more than 5 years old had the highest infection rate (51%). Fifty-six percent (28/50) of areas were positive for T. gondii in cats. Our results show T. gondii is widespread in stray cats in Bangkok. It is essential to control the number of stray cats in order to reduce the transmission of toxo-plasmosis to animals and humans.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 293 of 726
Author(s): Wilairatana, P (Wilairatana, Polrat); Krudsood, S (Krudsood, Srivicha); Tangpukdee, N (Tangpukdee, Noppadon)
Abstract: Plasmodium knowlesi morphologically resembles P. malariae; PCR assays are able to differentiate between the 2 species correctly. However, PCR is not available in many hospitals in P. knowlesi endemic areas, particularly in Southeast Asia. In places where PCR is not available, anti-malarial drugs for P. malariae or other non-P. falciparum or P. falciparum species are effective against P. knowlesi. Even with a wrong diagnosis of another malaria species by light microscopy instead of P. knowlesi, the antimalarial drugs given are still effective for treating P. knowlesi infection.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 294 of 726
Author(s): Sato, M (Sato, Megumi); Pongvongsa, T (Pongvongsa, Tiengkham); Sanguankiat, S (Sanguankiat, Surapol); Yoonuan, T (Yoonuan, Tipparayat); Dekumyoy, P (Dekumyoy, Paron); Kalambaheti, T (Kalambaheti, Thareerat); Keomoungkhoun, M (Keomoungkhoun, Malaythong); Phimmayoi, I (Phimmayoi, Inthava); Boupha, B (Boupha, Boungnong); Moji, K (Moji, Kazuhiko); Waikagul, J (Waikagul, Jitra)
Abstract: The utility of differential copro-DNA diagnosis using modified sample preparation steps of small liver and minute intestinal fluke infections was tested. Fecal samples containing parasite eggs were washed extensively with diluted detergent Solution. Parasite eggs were concentrated by sedimentation and broken by microwaving before DNA extraction. PCR targeting ITS1 and ITS2 regions were performed using primer specific for Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui and other related species. Of 125 fecal samples, 94 were positive for small trematode eggs by a modified cellophane thick smear method. By ITS1-PCR, 52 samples were positive for O. viverrini, 12 H. taichui and 7 mixed infection. By ITS2-PCR, 63 were positive for O. viverrini, 17 H. taichui, and 19 mixed infection. The ITS-PCR assay identified a higher number of opisthorchiasis cases than those with O. viverrini expelled after treatment, but for H. taichui, ITS-PCR identified less than half of the worm expelled cases. These results showed that copro-DNA diagnosis was useful for the differential diagnosis of O. viverrini and H. taichui infection, which could not be discriminated by microscopy.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 295 of 726
Author(s): Sri-Aroon, P (Sri-aroon, Pusadee); Chusongsang, P (Chusongsang, Phiraphol); Chusongsang, Y (Chusongsang, Yupa); Surinthwong, P (Surinthwong, Pornpimol); Butraporn, P (Butraporn, Piyarat); Lohachit, C (Lohachit, Chantima)
Abstract: The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 296 of 726
Author(s): Kittigul, L (Kittigul, Leera); Pombubpa, K (Pombubpa, Kannika); Sukonthalux, S (Sukonthalux, Suntharee); Rattanatham, T (Rattanatham, Tippawan); Utrarachkij, F (Utrarachkij, Fuangfa); Diraphat, P (Diraphat, Pornphan)
Abstract: This Study was conducted to determine the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in raw oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) using a virus concentration method and reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). A total of 220 oyster samples were collected from oyster farms and local markets in Thailand. HAV was found in three oyster samples. Nested PCR products of HAV detected in oysters were characterized further by DNA sequencing of the VP1/2A, region and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All HAV sequences (168 basepairs) were associated with human HAV subgenotype IB (GIB). Fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined using the multiple tube fermentation method, to assess the microbiological quality of collected oysters. Among oyster samples tested, 65% had fecal coliforms higher than the standard level for raw shellfish [<20 Most Probable Numbers (MPN)/g]; MPN values in the range of 2-1.0-4.6 x 10(4)/g. Most oyster samples (85%) were contaminated with E. coli in the range of 3.0-4.6 x 10(4) MPN/g. One oyster sample with an acceptable level of fecal coliforms contained HAV GIB. E. coli was found in all HAV-positive oyster samples. The results suggest a significant presence of HAV and bacterial indicators of fecal contamination in raw oysters, which are a health risk for consumers and a source of gastrointestinal illness. Enteric viruses Should also be tested to assess the micro-biological quality of oysters.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 297 of 726
Author(s): Aramaki, M (Aramaki, Maie); Silachamroon, U (Silachamroon, Udomsak); Desakorn, V (Desakorn, Varunee); Maek-A-Nantawat, W (Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach); Waiwaruwut, J (Waiwaruwut, Jirachai); Jutiwarakun, K (Jutiwarakun, Kamonwan); Kim, JH (Kim, Jerome Hahn); Pitisuttithum, P (Pitisuttithum, Punnee)
Abstract: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an important ad verse event among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The epidemiology of IRIS in Thailand has not been well examined, especially among adult HIV-infected patients. In the present Study, we reviewed the medical records of 174 HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive patients older than 15 years (the median CD4 count at commencement of HAART was 37 cells/mm(3)) and compared characteristics of patients with and without IRIS. During a 12-month follow-up period after commencement of HAART, 11 cases (6.3%) of IRIS were identified (4.2/100 patient years HAART). The cases included nine cases with mycobacterial infection, one with cytomegalovirus retinitis and one with cryptococcal meningitis. The patients with IRIS were significantly Younger than those without IRIS (29 vs 36 on medians, p=0.022). The median interval between commencement of HAART and the onset of IRIS was 22 days. Although all patients with IRIS improved with or without corticosteroids, the were more frequently hospitalized during a 12-month folllow-up period while taking HAART (1 vs 0 on medians, p<0.001). The incidence of IRIS in advanced adult HIV-infected patients in Thailand was lower than that reported from Europe and the United States, which may be attributable to deferment of HAART after diagnosing opportunistic infections.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 298 of 726
Author(s): Jayathunge, MPH (Jayathunge, Mangala P. H.); Bowanwatanuwong, C (Bowanwatanuwong, Chureeratana); Maek-a-nantawat, W (Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach); Phonrat, B (Phonrat, Benjaluck); Pitisuttithum, P (Pitisuttithum, Punnee)
Abstract: This retrospective case-control Study assessed the psychological burden of abnormal Pap smears, and their prevalence and characteristics among HIV-infected women attending an HIV clinic. Women with positive (n = 73) and negative Pap-smear results (n = 317) were assessed for psychosocial burden using 4 questionnaires: Psycho-Social Impact of Abnormal Pap Smears (PEAPS-Q), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) and the EURO-Qol Thermometer. The prevalence of pre-cervical cancer lesions in HIV infected woman was 17.5% (ASCUS 2.9%, LSIL 3.8%, HSIL 7.4%, SCC 1.7%, and atypical glandular cells including adenocarcinoma 17%). HIV infected women with abnormal Pap smears showed higher anxiety levels oil the HADS questionnaire (p = 0.015); this had a significant effect oil regular daily activities (p = 0.009) per the WPAI questionnaire compared to HIV positive women with normal Pap smear. Ever married HIV infected woman with all abnormal Pap smear had a significantly lower psychosocial burden using the PEAPS-Q questionnaire (p<0.001). After adjusting for age and duration since last Pap smear, the education level of the patient was a strong predictor for anxiety. Patients, with a college education had significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.001, 95% CI -5.74 to -1.37) than those with lower or higher education. Women with HSIL were more anxious (p = 0.014, 95%, CI 0.491-4.39) than those with low grade or normal lesions.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 299 of 726
Author(s): Rirattanapong, P (Rirattanapong, Praphasri); Smutkeeree, A (Smutkeeree, Apiwan); Surarit, R (Surarit, Rudee); Saendsirinavin, C (Saendsirinavin, Chavenkiat); Kunanantsak, V (Kunanantsak, Vilasinee)
Abstract: This Study was performed to compare the remineralizing effects of various concentrations of fluoride containing dentifrices against artificial demineralization of primary enamel. One hundred twenty primary incisors were partly covered with a nail varnish, leaving a 1x1 mm window, then placed in demineralizing Solution for 96 hours to produce artificial carious lesions 60-100 mu m in depth. They were assigned to 8 groups (A to H; n=15). Groups A-D were exposed to a half pea-sized portion of dentifrice (0.16 g) and groups E-H were exposed to a pea-sized portion of dentifrice (0.32 g), both groups with fluoride concentrations of 0, 250, 500 and 1,000 ppm. The pH-cycling method was carried Out for 7 days, then the teeth were cut through the lesions and examined under a polarized light microscope; photographs were taken and analyzed. Lesion depth was measured using a Computerized method using the Image-Pro (R) Plus Program. The results were analyzed using the One way ANOVA and LSD tests. The mean lesion depth in the 2 non-fluoridated control groups (A and E) were significantly deeper than in the fluoridated groups. There were no differences found between the half pea-sized and pea-sized dentifrice.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 300 of 726
Author(s): Saiwichai, T (Saiwichai, Tawee); Sangalangkarn, V (Sangalangkarn, Vanida); Kawahara, K (Kawahara, Ko-ichi); Oyama, Y (Oyama, Yoko); Chaichalotornkul, S (Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip); Narkpinit, S (Narkpinit, Somphong); Harnyuttanakorn, P (Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai); Singhasivanon, P (Singhasivanon, Pratap); Maruyama, I (Maruyama, Ikuro); Tancharoen, S (Tancharoen, Salunya)
Abstract: Tobacco-smoke exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea has been reported to have anti-release properties against various pro-inflammatory cytokines. To determine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) levels in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), we divided rats into 4 treatment groups: (1) CS only, (2) dietary supplement with GTE (3 mg/d) and CS (GCSI.), (3) dietary supplement with GTE (4.5 mg/d) and CS (GCS2) and (4) a control group. HMGB1 and cotinine serum levels were analyzed by ELISA. The average serum HMGB1 level in the CS group was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.01), indicating the release of HMGB1 into the blood was stimulated by CS exposure, while GTE consumption suppressed HMGB1 levels. Rats exposed to CS had an average serum cotinine level of 37 ng/ml, indicating tobacco related compounds were present in the rats' blood. However, treatment with GTE did not reduce cotinine levels in all groups. Cotinine stimulated HMGB1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and HMGB1 levels were suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results show GTE supplementation may offer beneficial systemic effects and suppress HMGB1 by protecting against cell inflammation.
ISSN: 0125-1562

Record 301 of 726
Author(s): Price, EP (Price, Erin P.); Hornstra, HM (Hornstra, Heidie M.); Limmathurotsakul, D (Limmathurotsakul, Direk); Max, TL (Max, Tamara L.); Sarovich, DS (Sarovich, Derek S.); Vogler, AJ (Vogler, Amy J.); Dale, JL (Dale, Julia L.); Ginther, JL (Ginther, Jennifer L.); Leadem, B (Leadem, Benjamin); Colman, RE (Colman, Rebecca E.); Foster, JT (Foster, Jeffrey T.); Tuanyok, A (Tuanyok, Apichai); Wagner, DM (Wagner, David M.); Peacock, SJ (Peacock, Sharon J.); Pearson, T (Pearson, Talima); Keim, P (Keim, Paul)
Title: Within-Host Evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Four Cases of Acute Melioidosis
Source: PLOS PATHOGENS, 6 (1): Art. No. e1000725 JAN 2010
Abstract: Little is currently known about bacterial pathogen evolution and adaptation within the host during acute infection. Previous studies of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, have shown that this opportunistic pathogen mutates rapidly both in vitro and in vivo at tandemly repeated loci, making this organism a relevant model for studying short-term evolution. In the current study, B. pseudomallei isolates cultured from multiple body sites from four Thai patients with disseminated melioidosis were subjected to fine-scale genotyping using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). In order to understand and model the in vivo variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) mutational process, we characterized the patterns and rates of mutations in vitro through parallel serial passage experiments of B. pseudomallei. Despite the short period of infection, substantial divergence from the putative founder genotype was observed in all four melioidosis cases. This study presents a paradigm for examining bacterial evolution over the short timescale of an acute infection. Further studies are required to determine whether the mutational process leads to phenotypic alterations that impact upon bacterial fitness in vivo. Our findings have important implications for future sampling strategies, since colonies in a single clinical sample may be genetically heterogeneous, and organisms in a culture taken late in the infective process may have undergone considerable genetic change compared with the founder inoculum.
ISSN: 1553-7366
Article Number: e1000725
DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000725

Record 302 of 726
Author(s): Antia, BS (Antia, Bassey S.); Pansanit, A (Pansanit, Acharavadee); Ekpa, OD (Ekpa, Okon D.); Ekpe, UJ (Ekpe, Udofot J.); Mahidol, C (Mahidol, Chulabhorn); Kittakoop, P (Kittakoop, Prasat)
Title: alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory, Aromatase Inhibitory, and Antiplasmodial Activities of a Biflavonoid GB1 from Garcinia kola Stem Bark
Source: PLANTA MEDICA, 76 (3): 276-277 FEB 2010
Abstract: The biflavonoid, 3 '',4',4''',5,5 '',7,7 ''-heptahydroxy-3,8-biflavanone, known as GB1 (1), was isolated as amajor constituent from Garcinia kola stem bark. GB1 (1) exhibited alpha-glucosidase and aromatase inhibitory activities, as well as antiplasmodial activity, but was not toxic against cell lines tested. GB1 (1) may be a potential dietary supplement or phytomedicine for the prevention of breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ISSN: 0032-0943
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1186081

Record 303 of 726
Author(s): Nimitphak, T (Nimitphak, Tongchai); Meemetta, W (Meemetta, Watcharachai); Arunrut, N (Arunrut, Narong); Senapin, S (Senapin, Saengchan); Kiatpathomchai, W (Kiatpathomchai, Wansika)
Title: Rapid and sensitive detection of Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral-flow dipstick
Abstract: Several methods such as traditional PCR or nested-PCR, immuno assay and histopathology have been developed for detection of Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV) formerly called monodon baculovirus (MBV). However, these methods have various disadvantages including low sensitivity, long assay time, use of toxic substances or unsuitability for field diagnosis. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of target nucleotide sequences under isothermal conditions, combined with amplicon detection by chromatographic lateral-flow dipsticks allows for more efficient, field friendly detection within 75 min (not including DNA preparation time). In this study, the LAMP amplicon was biotinylated via an inner LAMP primer designed from a BamHI fragment B, a hypothetical protein gene of PemoNPV under isothermal condition at 63 degrees C for 1 h. Next, the LAMP product was hybridized at 63 degrees C for 5 min with an optima