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In this book only one source has been given at the end of each group of teachings just for reference purposes. The meanings and explanations have been occasionally expanded on, occasionally condensed, as appropriate, and have been checked against other sources, both in the Tipitaka and in the Commentaries. To mention all the sources would make the book too textbookish; however, there are a number of points which should be noted, as follows:

bullet In the seven qualities of a good person (sappurisa-dhamma), dhammannuta may also mean: when hearing or seeing anything, one can grasp the essence of it. Atthannuta may mean: having seen or heard anything, one understands its meaning, purpose and objective and how to elaborate on it. These two conditions are the core of all the sappurisa-dhamma.
bullet In the Adhipateyya Sutta (A.III.33) the Buddha explains the meaning of the three supremacies specifically in reference to monastic practice, but it may be taken that this teaching was given for a specific situation, or as an example, since it can be seen that dhammadhipateyya is one of the conditions listed in the qualities of a universal ruler (see Chapter 7) and is a quality of an administrator just as much as it is a quality of the Buddha (A.I.109; A.III.149). In the Visuddhimagga (Vism.14) morality (sila) is divided into three levels in accordance with the three levels of supremacy. Moreover, the Commentators tend to use the words attadhipateyya and lokadhipateyya in explaining the meaning of hiri (shame) and ottappa (moral conscience) (DA.3/215; MA.2/422; ItA.205). In this book, I have adapted these meanings to a governmental perspective, as it ties in well with the matter in hand and also gives another perspective on the teaching that might be useful.

bullet In the Tipitaka only four main factors are given for the cakkavatti-vatta, but in this book five are given for the sake of clarity (the first divided into two). The more familiar twelve cakkavatti-vatta are from the Commentaries (DA.3/46).
bullet The word Ditthadhammikattha-samvattanika-dhamma is coined in accordance with the Pali sources. The term made familiar to the layman [in Thailand], and also easier to remember, is "dittha-dhammikattha-prayojana". The term prayojana, "benefit," is appended merely for ease of utterance, as it is synonymous with the already existing term attha.


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bullet Of the four kinds of happiness of the householder, the fourth, usually translated as "the happiness that arises from blameless work," gives the rather narrow impression that it deals specifically with livelihood, but in the Tipitaka it is said to mean all kinds of good kamma through the three doors [bodily, verbal, and mental]. Here the definition has been adapted to accord more closely with the original Pali (the happiness arising from honest labor is already included in the first point).
bullet In the fullest sense of the term, the gharavasa-dhamma are used [to guide] the conduct of the householder's life in general, and in the Pali they are referred to as the gharamesi-dhamma ("teachings for those who seek a home"). Here, dama is meant to refer to wisdom, and khanti to effort.
bullet In the original Pali it is called attha-dvara (the doorway to benefit). The Commentaries explain that attha is the same as "vuddhi," while dvara is glossed as "pamukha" or "mukha." Thus, it can also be referred to as vuddhi-mukha. However, Thai people are more familiar with the term vaddhana, which is a synonym for "vuddhi." Thus, here I have used the term vaddhana-mukha (the gateway to advancement).
bullet The Buddha compared the people in the society surrounding us, to whom we must relate properly in various ways according to their status of relationship with us, to six directions, in the sense that they are like different directions in the space around us, as follows:
  1. The forward direction: those who come before, i.e. parents
  2. The right direction: those worthy of respect, i.e. teachers
  3. The rearward direction: those who come after, i.e. spouse and children
  4. The left direction: those who are alongside, i.e. friends and associates
  5. The lower direction: those who support, i.e. employees and workers
  6. The upper direction: those who are high in virtue, i.e. monks
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bullet Harajana is a clipping of the original annadatthuhara.

bullet Anukampi: the original term is anukampaka.

bullet In the seven qualities of a good friend, the fifth, vacanakkhamo, is meant in the source texts to refer to resilience in the face of others' words, or the ability to listen to criticisms and be ready to correct any faults that may be pointed out (see definition at AA.3/200 and example at (SA.1/45).

bullet The five Pali words used here are newly coined. The original terms are 1. anupubbikatham, 2. pariyayadassavi, 3. anudayatam paticca,    4. na amisantaro, 5. attananca paranca anupahacca.
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bullet The fifth duty of a teacher to a student, "providing a protection for all directions," means, according to the Commentaries, teaching his students so that they can use their knowledge to make a living and fare well in the world. It also means that, if the student goes to live in a different locality, the teacher recommends him to others so that they become convinced of his abilities and approach him [for his services, etc.]. (DA.3/183)
bullet The four vuddhi are known in the original Pali as the pannavuddhi-dhamma, the conditions that encourage the growth of wisdom; they do not refer to progress in a general sense. This is why they have been included in the section on learning and education.

bullet Literally, the term means "giving priority to serving this religion." Thus it may also be translated as "taking the lead in supporting and helping out in activities for the Buddhist cause."

bullet The explanations given are according to the Commentary (AA.3/395) and differ somewhat from what is usually taught.

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